God and the world

  • Created by: Katrina
  • Created on: 15-05-13 16:27
What is the definition of Ocham's razor?
All things being equal the simplest explanation is probably true.
1 of 39
What is the argument from analogy?
X applies in case A. Case A is similar to case B. Therefore x applies to B
2 of 39
What makes a good analogy
A large number of similarities, relevance and a large number of instances
3 of 39
What is William Paley's analogy?
Compares a pocket watch to nature. The pocket watch has a specific purpose, various parts, specific materials etc much like nature. Paley concluded that artefacts must have a designer. This means that natural objects too must have a designer.
4 of 39
What are the problems with William Paley's analogy? (Hume)
How similar is the universe to artefacts? Many dissimalarities, many other analogies could also fit the universe, these should all be looked at before deciding on the best explanation. No reason to think designer is perfect.
5 of 39
What did Mill say about William Paley's analogy?
That it is undesirable by theists. The universe is imperfect and contains evil and pain. If you run the analogy backwards we reach the conclusion that the designer isn't very good.
6 of 39
What is the theory of evolution? (eye)
The eye is so complex it came about by random chance in sporadic mutation during evolution. It changes step by step as year go by.
7 of 39
Why is Darwins theory better than William Paley's analogy?
Because it provides proof which we can observe, unlike God. It is repeatable and is also the simpler explanation
8 of 39
What did Russel Stanard say about the big bang?
If the big bang was too violent or not violent enough there would be no life, Too many coincidences are needed to make life occur, all the conditions have to be perfect. The universe is so precise it needs an explanation
9 of 39
What is explanatory power?
The ability the explanation has to explain all the data we have to consider.
10 of 39
What is predictive power?
A good explanation will give us ground to predict what happens next
11 of 39
What is cohesiveness?
Capacity of the explanation to fit other beliefs and observations that have already been made.
12 of 39
What did Tennant say needed explaining?
The intelligibility of the universe to humans, the possibility of organic adaption, the adaption of inorganic world to life, the beauty of nature, the existence of morality, the emerge of human beings
13 of 39
What is Swiunburne's argument from design?
Particles all act in the same way according the laws of nature. Scientific laws cannot be explained by science so there must be another explanation. Big bang was perfect. Laws of nature are caused by God. God is a very simple being
14 of 39
What is the anthropic principle?
If the big bang varied by 10 to the power of 60 life and humans would not be created. The universe seems planned for us
15 of 39
What are the problems with Swinburne's argument from design?
Regularity doesn't require an explanation, the fact that the universe has produced humans in not remarkable, it's only remarkable because we think we're special.
16 of 39
What is the problem with the anthropic principle?
It is arrogant to conclude that the universe was made just for humans. 15.1 billion years of universe just for us seems like a huge waste of space and time.
17 of 39
What is the argument FROM design?
The universe shows design. Seeks to conclude that the existence of God is more probable
18 of 39
What is the argument FOR design?
Universe shows design. Seeks to conclude that there is evidence of design in the universe and nothing more.
19 of 39
What is the logical problem of evil?
Glod is either williing but not able to stop evil- feeble, able but not willing- envious, neither willing nor able-feeble and envious or able and willing- why is there evil?
20 of 39
What problem does J.L Mackie point out?
Believers are committed to holding 2 logically incompatible claims. God is all-loving and all-powerful and all-knowing, and evil exists.
21 of 39
What are the 2 hypothesis' from the evidential problem of evil?
1) there is a god of classical theism 2) there is no such God
22 of 39
What is Hick's response to the problem of evil?
If people must have free will then we must be able to sin. To say that God shouldn't have allowed sin is to say that God shouldn't have created beings capable of sin ie not humans
23 of 39
What is Peter Vardy's Free will defence?
"The parable of the prince and the peasant girl" 1)The highest good for humans is a loving relationship with God 2) Love must be freely chosen 3) God gave humans free will in order to achieve 1) 4)freedom means humans choose between good and bad
24 of 39
What are the problems with the free will defence?
Neglects natural evil, there is nothing logically impossible about always choosing good, We may not be free at all, is the suffering of innocents worth a loving relationship with God?
25 of 39
Explain the Augustinian theodicy- the philosophical strand
The universe was created wholly and good. Evil was not created it is the corruption, decay or privation of good, God is not responsible.
26 of 39
Explain the Augustinian theodicy- the theological strand
The universe is created wholly and utterly good. Evil is the corruption of good. The fall of humanity: Adam freely chose to disobey God. Sin enters the world. We were all seminally present in Adam. All evil is sin or punishment of sin.
27 of 39
Explain the Augustinian theodicy- The escotological strand
God is all-loving and merciful. God offers a plan for salvation and redemption through the death of christ. If people accept christ as their saviour they will go to heaven. In judgement evil are punished and good are rewarded. Balances the universe
28 of 39
What are the strengths of the Augustinian theodicy?
Covers all evils (natural and moral), God is not responsible, judgement day encourages good, supported by christian belief, reflects bigger picture
29 of 39
What are the weaknesses of the Augstinian theodicy?
Unfair to punish all humanity for one sin, No evidence of original sin, if no evil sin then there is no justification for evil experienced, Adam and eve would've had no concept of sin, rebellio of angels, God is responsible for the fall, sin and evil
30 of 39
Explain the Irenaen theodicy
World not created perfectly, we shall create humans in the our image after our likeness. 1st stage of creation) Made in the image of God, 2nd stage of creation) Develop God likeness through free choices.
31 of 39
Explain the Irenaen theodicy
The world must be a place of genuine danger, we must face challenges to develop higher moral qualitites, moral goodness earned better than given, God precense directky affects us acting freely. The world is soul making.
32 of 39
What are the strengths of the Irenaen theodicy?
Gives a clear rationale for evil, corresponds with God's characteristics, explains absence of God, offers something to look forward to, there is a positive outcome, removes blame from God, doesn't conflict with evolution.
33 of 39
What are the weaknesses of the Irenaen theodicy?
Do people improve from suffering? Distribution of evil and suffering seems unfair, extent of suffering seems unnecessary, hardly anyone reaches god likeness, Are we free? If not then there is no moral development.
34 of 39
What was A. J Ayer;s verification principle?
Meaningful statements must reveal facts about the world, religious claims attempt but fail this. Verification principle- A statement is only meaningful if it can be empirically verified.strong and weak. Weak- accept some statements if probable.
35 of 39
What are the criticisms of Ayer's verification principle?
rules out too much language that is meaningful such as universal statements, verification principle itself cannot be verified, religious claims are verifiable at the end of life
36 of 39
What are cognitive and non-cognitive statements?
Cognitive- a statement that is true/false about the world, non-cognitive- utterance that is neither true nor false, shows something about the speaker.
37 of 39
What did Hare say and what are bliks?
Hare:parable of the Dons, would say that the man fails to reveal facts about the world but it's not meaningless. Reflects different bliks. Bliks: A conviction about the world that is not falsifiable yet is meaningful to its holder.
38 of 39
Explain Flew's falsification principle
If no facts will count as the denial of a claim then the claim fails to assert any facts at all. It is not about whether or not the claim is true/false it is about whether or not the claim is meaningful ie revealing facts about the world.
39 of 39

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the argument from analogy?


X applies in case A. Case A is similar to case B. Therefore x applies to B

Card 3


What makes a good analogy


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is William Paley's analogy?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the problems with William Paley's analogy? (Hume)


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Philosophy resources:

See all Philosophy resources »See all Ideas of gods resources »