Germany in transition unit 1.5

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What happened to the Kaiser?
Forced to abdicate and flea to Holland
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What was the new democratic goverment called?
The Weimar
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What ws the Reichstag?
Parliament, made up politcal parties
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What could the president do in an emergancy?
Article 48- pass laws without the agreement of the Reichstag
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What did the Allies do when they met at Versailles?
Drew up a treaty to end the war- Treaty of Versailles
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When was the Treaty of Versailles?
Summer 1919
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Who was at the meeting?
Allies- Big 3- 27 other nations
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What were the main terms of the treaty?
Huge loss of land toneighbouring countries- army reduced 100,000- Rhineland was occuipied by the Allies- Germany had to accept responsiblty for the war and pay reparations (compensation)
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Germany was forced to accept the terms because....
they would invade (germany was on its knees)
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What did the civllians think of the treaty?
unfair- blamed politicians for sighning it- Stab in the back
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What did they call the politicians?
November crimnals
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When did Germany stop paying reparations?
1932- couldn't afford it
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What were the concerquces of this?
france and belgium invaded the Rhur and forced the Germans to work for them
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What did the German Goverment tell the workers to do?
Use passive resistance- strike
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What did the goverment do to support the workers of strike?
Print more money- 1923
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What did this cause?
Hyperinflation- money worthless- prices shot up- people paid twice a day- wheelbarrows and suitcases for carry money home
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Was inflation bad for everyone?
no- Farmers, bussiness men, people in debt
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When did Hitler join the german workers party?
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within how many years did hitler become leader?
2 years
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what was the name of the party changed to?
Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi)
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What helped to attract membership?
the swastika
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What did Hitler set up in 1921?
SA (Sturm Abteilung) or 'Storm troopers'
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What did the dress in?
Brown uniforms with a swastika armband- 'Brownshirts'
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What did they do?
Involed in street fights with other parties and broke up oppisitions meetings
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When was the Munich Putsch?
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What was the Muich putsch?
Used the SA to attack Muinch- wanted to seieze power and overthrow goverment
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What action did the police take?
16 Nazis were killed and Hitler was arrested
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What were the consequences of the putsch?
1.Hitler tried for treason sentenced to 5 years imprisonment (only did 9 months) 2. Hitlers trial gave the Nazis alot of publicty 3. Whilst in prison Hitler had time to think about the future and orgainse his ideas. He worte them i the book MK
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What conculsion did Hitler come to?
Seiezing power by force failed. Thought of a new way to achive power. They would win power by legal means
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When where the 'Golden years'?
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Who made germany calmer?
Gustav Streseman
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What type of things did he do?
Ended hyperinflation by ending the strike in the Ruhr-introduced the 'Rentenmark'- loaned 800m marks from USA (Dawes plan)- got reparations reduced (young plan)
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When the USA went into depression what did they demand Germany do?
Pay back 800m marks- sent Germany into depression
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In 1933 employment was at.....
6 million- people blamed Weimar Goverment
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How did the depression benfit Hitler?
People's hatred for the weimar Goverment increased- began to become attracted to his ideas.
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What were some of his main ideas?
Germany needed strong leader (like himself)- Cancel TOV- make Germany a great military power by increasing the army- Said he would make Germany prosperous after depression
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What was the 'Aryan race'?
Blond hair, Blue eyed Germans who were superior to other races. Pure German blood.
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Why did Hitler hate the Jews?
Most inferior race. He hated them (anti-Semitic) and blamed them for Germanys problems.
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What did he think had to happen?
German people had to be 'purified' of all Jewish bloodbefore they could become the master raceand dominate the world.
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What did Hitler Want German people to do?
Feel part of the 'people's community'- work together and forget old class and political divisions- individual lives less important than their controbution to Germany itself-'individual rights' not important
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What did Hitler think of Communism?
Hated it and pledged to destroy it.
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In 1929 the 4 political parties had no solution to the rising unemployment problem. What did the public do?
In the 1930 elections the 4 parties lost their seats and voters turned to the extreme parties
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What happened regarding the communists?
Many working class people voted for them and they did well in the election as they promised to restore Germanys wealth and share it out fairly.
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Who voted for the Nazis?
Middle class
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What did the Nazis promise?
strong leadership- end of depression- overturn Treaty of Versailles- make Germany powerful
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Who did they say was responsibe for Germanys problems?
Jews- Scapegoats
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How many seats did the Nazis win in the 1930 elections?
107- second largest party (behind socialists)
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How many chanellors did Hindenburg choose that failed?
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What were the 7 main reasons for the electoral sucess of the Nazis?
1. Depression 2. Nazi appeal 3. Propaganda 4. Violence 5.Financial Backing 6. Hitler 7. Weakness of the Weimar
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How did the Depression help the Nazis?
Weimar had no soloution where as Nazis put forward simple soloutions
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How did the Nazis appeal to everyone?
Promised soloutions to issues that concerned everyone - Treaty of Versailles, Make Germany powerful, end depression
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What did the Nazis promise the working class?
Jobs, decent wages and good working conditions.
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What did they promise the Middle Class?
That they would destroy communism- high unemployment= communist revolution, middle class lose everything they worked for.
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What were farmers and women promised?
good price for their produce- support for family values (half the votes from women)
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What types of propganda did the Nazis use?
posters, radio, books, newspapers, held mass rallies (impressive) and Hitler flew across Germany to make speeches
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Who did the Nazis use violence againsit and how did they justify it?
Communists and Socialist (other politcal parties)- Claimed to be 'dealing with the communist threat'
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Who did the Nazis use to cause Violence and what did they do?
The SA- disrupt the meetings of other politcal parties to imtimidate oppnenents
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Why did the Nazis need financial backing?
To fund their election campaigns
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Who funded them?
Wealthy Businessmen- Alfred Hugenburg owned hundreds of newspapers and cinemas around Germany
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How was Hitler potrayed?
He was a great political speaker who could inspire people. - strong leader, superman
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How did the weakness of the Weimar benifit the Nazis?
unable to deal with crisis, couldn't make laws, unpopular, no one had the majority of seats
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When did Hitler become Chancellor?
January 1933
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When was the Reichstag fire?
27th February 1933
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What did Hitler do when he became chancellor?
Organise another election in March, so he could get the majority of seats in the Reichstag and then change the consitution and become dictator
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How did Hitler being Chancelloe effect his opponents?
Made it difficult for them to run a proper campaign- Prussia, the police encougred to break up Socialist and communist meetings
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Who caused the Reichstag Fire?
Mariannus Van de Lubbe, a dutch communist- found inside builiding with matches and firelighters
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How did the Fire benifit the Nazis?
Used it to frighten Germans that that the communist were about to start a revolution (unpopular)- Hitler persauded Hindenburg to pass and emergancy decree- ban communists from taking there seats in the Reichstag
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What was the decree called?
The law for protection of the people and the state- suspend all articles of the consitution which garunteed 'personal liberty, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly'-
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What did it do?
suspend all articles of the consitution which garunteed 'personal liberty, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly'- gave the police(hitler) power to serch houses, confiscate property, arrest people without trial
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Hitler still didn't win enough seats in the March elections, how did he solve this?
Made a deal with Center party (catholic votes). If he did not interfer with the catholic chruch in Germany, the catholic poltions would vote for his laws.
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When was the enabling act?
23rd March 1933
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What was the Enabling act?
Gave Chancellor the power to make laws for 4 years without the Reichstag voting on them- it was passed
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When did Hitler put Nazi Officials incharge of all German states?
April 1933
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What happened to trade Unions and when did it happen?
Trade unions became banned and strikes mad illegal- May 1933- workers made to join Nazi controlled German Labour front
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How did Hitler make Germany a one party state?
Other political parties banned and their leaders were put in prison.- July 1933 Law againsit the formation of new parties was made
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What was the Law againsit the formation of new parties (july 1933)?
Nazi party was the only party allowed to exsit- anyone trying to set up or run another party was imprisoned.
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What was one way Hitler controlled the press?
Reich press Law- Oct 1933- strict control
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When was the Night of the Long Knives?
30th June 1934
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Why didn't President Hindenburg stop Hitler?
He hadn't got long to live as he was old and senile.
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Who was the leader of the SA at this time?
Ernst Roehm
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What did Roehm want?
For the SA to take over the Army
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What did Hitler do to the SA and why?
He turned on the SA by having all the leading officers of the SA arrested and executed without trial- Needed the Army and rich busissness men support to become president
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How many people were Killed on the Night of the Long Knives?
Over 4oo- excutions carried out by the SS
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When did Hitler Become Fuhrer?
August 1934- on the same day all officers and men of the army swore an oath of loyalty to Hitler
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From 1933- 34 Hitler changed Germany to what?
A Nazi Dictatorship- Third Reich had begun.
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Card 2


What was the new democratic goverment called?


The Weimar

Card 3


What ws the Reichstag?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What could the president do in an emergancy?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did the Allies do when they met at Versailles?


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