Geography - economic change

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What is primary industry?
the extraction of raw materials from the ground or the sea.
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examples of employment in primary industry
mining, farming, fishing, forestry
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what is secondary industry?
the processing(manufacturing) of goods using the raw materials from primary industry.
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examples of employment in secondary industry
making paper from wood
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what is tertiary industry?
is concerned with doing a service.
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examples of tertiary industry
teachers,solicitors, sales assistants and cleaners
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name reasons for the decline in the numbers employed in the primary sector in the UK
DEPLETION OF RESOURCES-raw materials run out,decline in mining industry.-SOCIAL CHANGE,primary jobs hard work. CHEAP IMPORTS- most rm secondary-imported from abroad. MECHANISATION:fewer workers needed,jobs done by machines
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What are the positives effects of the growth of secondary industry in China?
(government spent $172 billion on protecting the environment)(ppl in urban area-now get jobs+higher standard of living)(many new homes built in urban areas that workers can afford-moving out of shanty towns)
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what are the negative effects of the growth of the secondary industry in China?
90% underground water in urban areas polluted. Workers poorly paid-many 40p 1hr. 760,000 die a yr from illness bc of water+air pollution. many workers left rural areas to urban areas,lack of young strong workers in rural areas
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explain what factors affect the location of primary industry?(extraction of kaolin(china clay),St.Austell,Cornwall)
location of raw materials-kaolin only in SW of england. Market-demand for kaolin for production of porcelain.meant market for mined kaolin. Transport-kaolin moved to south of cornwall by train. ships took to liverpool where transported to cheshire..
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explain what factors affect the location of secondary industry?(toyota car factory at Burnaston,near Derby)
Tradition-tradition of car manufacturing in area. Land-its greenfield site,cheaper on edge of Derby. Area-located close to villages e.g. the Peak District,attractive to workers. Transport-excellent transport routes.junction of two main trunk roads..
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explain what factors affect the locate of tertiary industry?(David Lloyd Health Club,Hatfield)
Location-Hatfield Business Park,workers from business could use health club. Transport/Accessibility-close to motorways,give access to large amount of ppl,walking distance Hertfordshire uni,potential source of clients. Demand-
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name reasons(factors) for the growth of the secondary industry in China
Government policy,infrastructure,energy,education,safety,safety for the workforce,wages,raw materials,trade
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What is the reason for growth of government policy in China?
all industry was owned by government but now 20% of companies are privately owned with investors from other countries
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What is the reason for growth of infrastructure in China?
many new roads have been built by the government to improve transport in the country
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What is the reason for growth of Energy in China?
the government has built many new nuclear and hydroelectric power stations to power the new industries
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What is the reason for growth of education in China?
there is a large unskilled workforce. over the next 20 years approximately 500,000 million people will leave the Chinese countryside in search of work in the cities. there is a growing skilled workforce.
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What is the reason for growth of safety for the workforce in China?
there are few rules for health and safety in Chinese factories which means they can produce goods cheaply.
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What is the reason for growth of Wages in China?
people in China will work for less than people in other countries such as the UK
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What is the reason for growth of raw materials in China?
china has a lot of natural resources such as coal,oil and natural gas.
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What is the reason for growth of trade in China?
china has a long coastline with major ports on trade routes
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What is an urban area?
built up areas with housing and industry
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what is an rural area?
countryside areas with fields and woods
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what are the reasons for the growth of the tertiary sector in the UK since 1970
a rise in demand for services linked to disposable incomes,decrease in employment in the primary+secondary,the development of new technologies,demographic changes
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how has a rise in demand for services linked to disposable incomes been a reason for the growth of the tertiary sector in the UK since 1970
money that average household has to spend on non-essential items doubled. led to rise in demand for services like beauticians and health clubs. by 2012,6m people were members of fitness centres
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how has a decrease in employment in the primary and secondary sectors been a reason for the growth of the tertiary sector in the UK since 1970
fewer people are employed in the primary + secondary sector which means proportionately more people are employed in the tertiary sector
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how has the development of new technologies been a reason for the growth of the tertiary sector in the UK since 1970
shops selling phones+computers common on high street. many people now work at call centres,lots of ppl are employed in telecommunication+computing providing services such as internet banking
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how has demographic changes been a reason for the growth of the tertiary sector in the UK since 1970
average age for woman to have child risen to 29-means ppl more time socialising and have families later in life,causing a demand rise for service industries. 35% population over 50,20% over 65. led to a big wealthy retired population in UK.
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explain the government attitudes towards the value of primary industry
attitudes varies between places and over time.Countrys economy may be based on primary industry-value of pi high. Also if countries have primary resources(oil)-high value.eg like Saudi Arabia.HICS-pi are of value to feed populations. however main sec
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explain the reasons for the decline in the secondary sector in the UK
GLOBALISATION-modern communication(internet)-business communicate globally.owner of company and goods produced in different countries.Developments in transport-goods moved quick.MECHANISATION-increased use of machinery in so-decrease in number of ppl
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explain the government attitudes towards the value of the secondary industry
varies from place 2 place and over time.HICS-has declined.Government in UK offered development grants to foreign manufacturers to keep some in country.1980s-Toyota offered incentives to set up a plant in Derbyshire.uk government-now concentrates on d
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what is disposable income?
money left over each month from wages after all essentials have been paid for
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what is grey pound?
money spent retired people
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what is deindustrialisation
areas are no longer used for industrial purposes
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explain the costs and benefits of deindustrialisation in rural areas-south wales
c and b of extraction of raw materials-left landscape scarred.1966-Aberfan disaster occurred.COSTS:landslide occurred from a coal waste heap bc of heavy rain+tons of material fell onto village school.144 dead. BENEFITS;land used for farming+leisure.
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explain the costs and benefits of deindustrialisation in rural areas-Reading in Berkshire
extraction of sand+gravel-left quarries full of water.COSTS;bc of this many jobs lost when quarries closed. BENEFITS;quarries used now.Copthorne Hotel built next to a 10-acre-lake.many sporting facilities there.provides jobs for local community.Greer
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explain the costs and benefits of deindustrialisation in rural areas-Eden Project,Cornwall.
extraction of china clay left pits full of water.one of pits became eden project.COSTS;pit 60m deep.when quarries closed ppl lost jobs+community lost income from quarry owners.BENEFITS;pit transformed to tourist attraction.landscape walks,huge divers
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

examples of employment in primary industry

Back

mining, farming, fishing, forestry

Card 3

Front

what is secondary industry?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

examples of employment in secondary industry

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is tertiary industry?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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