human and physical geography

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  • Created by: lauren
  • Created on: 02-05-11 13:20

restless earth

continental crust- crust dominated by land

oceanic crust- crust dominated by water

There are 4 layers of the earth- earths crust, mantle, outer core and inner core

plate tectonics are caused by heat and pressure building up under the earths surface

convection currents- movements of the magma in the mantle

4 plate boundaries- destructive, constructive, collision and conservative

destructive- two plates moving together

constructive- when material rises forcing the plates apart

collision- two continental plates moving towards eachother

conservative- plates sliding past one another

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earthquakes and volcanoes

plate margins- boundary between two tectonic plates

3 types of volcanoes- active, dormant and extinct

active- have erupted in the past

dormant- havent erupted in past, likely to in future

extinct- never erupted, never will

basaltic magma- found on constructive

andesitic magma- found on destructive

granitic magma- has a low temperature

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different types of volcanoes

sheild volcanoes- the volcanoes are low and wide, the eruption will be gentle

Mauna loa, Hawaii= sheild volcanoe

composite volcanoes- magma is thick, eruption will be more violent

mount pinatubo in the phillipines= composite volcanoe

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impacts of eruptions


social- people get hurt, homeless, education effected

economic- re-building costs a lot of money, loose money from tourism, transport routes ruined, industries destroyed


social- People loose jobs, injuries

economic- roads destroyed, health care will have to deal with a lot of injuries

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climate and change

weather- changes in the state of atmosphere

climate- averages of weather readings over a long period of time

climate change- long term changes in temperature

pliestocene- major cold period

halocene- warmer period

greenhouse gases are a natural effect (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen etc)

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effects of global warming

forest fires, droughts, sea levels rising, erosion, species lost, etc..

how will this effect the uk?

- lots of areas flooded

- heatwaves will increase

- droughts

delta- low lying place where river meets sea

cyclone- tropical storm caused by warm oceans

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drainage basin

-rainfall goes onto land

- flows into the river

- water evaporates

- cycle starts again

the water cycle is a closed system, water is held in transfers and stores

Stores- sea, clouds, ice, vegetation, ground

Transfers- evaporation, precipitation

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hydrological cycle

closed system- no water added/lost

evaporation-forms clouds- causes precipitation 

transpiration- plants and animals loose moisture as they cool down

vertical transfer- rainwater sinks into the ground

horizontal transfer- the water moves back into the sea

greenwater- water that never reaches the ground

bluewater- water that reaches the ground

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unreliable water

there is a decline in water availibility due to....

population growth

agriculture demand


how humans intervere in the water cycle...



global warming

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the sahel

semi arid land in the south of africa, people rely on agriculture for their income

problems include..

air and water pollution, deforestation, loss of soil, decline in biodiversity

causes of water stress..

only rains 1/2 times a year, growing population, desertification, no clean drinking water

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large scale water management

colorado river case study- its water is provided to 7 us states, 25 million people depend on it


-created loads of new jobs

-huge growth in cities


-animals habitats have been lost

-beaches washed away

environmental impacts

-fish becoming extinct

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small scale water management

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