Geography-Restless Earth

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  • Created by: Lucyjoyce
  • Created on: 02-05-14 08:55
Name the 2 parts of the Lithosphere
Oceanic Crust and Continental Crust
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Name the 2 parts of the Mantle
Asthenosphere and Mantle
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Name the 2 parts of the Core
Outer Core and Inner Core
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Which of the two crusts are thicker?
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Define convection currents
Convection currents are the movement of limbs (magma) in the mantle that cause tectonic plates to move around and create hotspots
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What are 2 results of convection currents?
Hotspots and movement of tectonic plates
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What are the 3 main types of plate boundary?
1. Constructive margins 2. Destructive margins 3. Conservative margins
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How are constructive margins formed?
Rising magma splits up continental crust and forms new oceans
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What can also be created from constructive margins?
A continental rift zone
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How are destructive margins formed?
Oceanic plates collide with continental plates and because the oceanic plates are denser than continental plates it sinks underneath the continental plate.
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What is the process of destructive plate margins called?
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What are the two results of destructive plate margins?
1. Volacanic arcs 2. Fold mountains
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How are conservative margins formed?
Two plates slide past each other in the same direction or in a different direction
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What are two facts about conservative margins?
1. Crust is neither created or destroyed 2. Volcanoes do not form there
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What happens at a conservative plate margin?
As plates move past each other tension builds and then a sudden lurch along the fault creates large and frequent earthquakes
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Give an example of a conservative plate margin
San Andreas Fault
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Give two examples of a destructive plate margin
1. Nazca Plate and South American Plate 2. The Andes
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Give an example of a constructive plate margin
Mid Atlantic Ridge
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What are the two types of volcanoes?
1. Composite (strato) 2. Shield
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What are four characteristics of a composite volcano?
1. Steep slopes and small area 2. Consist of alternate layers of ash and lava 3. Viscous magma/lava 4. Infrequent and large erruptions
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Name 2 examples of composite volcanoes
1. Mt. Pinatubo (Phillipenes) 2. Mt. Sakurajima (Japan)
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What are four characteristics of a shield volcano?
1. Low slopes and large area 2. Almost all made of lava 3. Fluid lava 4. Frequent and gentle erruptions
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Name 2 examples of shield volcanoes
1. Mauna Loa (Hawaii, USA) 2. Mt. Nyiragongo (DRC)
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Why would living near a volcano be an advantage?
Extremely fertile soil for agriculture
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What is attractive about living near an earthquake region?
Could be a central and important location
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What causes a tsunami?
Large volcanic eruptions and sub-sea earthquakes
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Define a tsunami
A series of large, destructive ocean waves that flood far inland. It is a secondary hazard
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Describe two characteristics of a tsunami wave
1. 900km/h 2. Up to 20-30m high
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What are the two factors that control the severity of earthquakes?
1. Magnitude on the Richter Scale 2. The depth, shallow earthquakes are more destructive
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State the four factors that affect the impact of earthquakes
1. Distance from epicentre 2. Time of day 3. Level of preparedness 4. Quality of emergency services
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What are primary and secondary impacts?
1. Primary impacts are an immediate effect on property and people- e.g shaking and property destruction 2. Secondary impact is the impact on property and people after the event has finished- e.g Lack of shelter and basic supplies
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Give an example of a developing world earthquake
Port-au-Prince, Haiti in January 2010
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State four facts about the Port-au-Prince earthquake
1. Magnitude 7.0 2. Depth 13km 3. Time 5pm 4. 316,000 deaths and 300,000 injured
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Give two primary impacts and two secondary impacts for the Port-au-Prince earthquake
Primary 1. Economic losses of £8.5 billion 2. Poverty and slum housing made people vulnerable Secondary 1. 1 million people made homeless 2. Infrastructure damage prevented trade
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Give an example of a developed world earthquake
Canterbury, New Zealand in September 2010
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State four facts about the Canterbury earthtquake
1. Magnitude 7.1 2. Depth 10km 3. Time 4:30am 4. No deaths and about 100 injuries
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Give a primary impact and a secondary impact for the Canterbury earthquake
Primary- Property damage of £1.8 billion Secondary- A major aftershock in Christchurch killed 185 people
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What are three of the response and relief efforts for the Port-au-Prince earthquake in Haiti
1. Red Cross dispatched a relief team 2. World vision provided necessities and educational services 3. President Obama promised $100 billion in aid
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Give an example of a recent volcanic eruption
Mt Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland 2010 eruption)
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State two primary impacts and two secondary impacts of the Iceland 2010 eruption
Primary 1. 360,000 people evacuated and 275 killed 2. Villages and farms destroyed from ash fall Secondary 1. Thousands of people spent weeks living in cramped emergency centres 2. Economic loses of $600 million from farming and tourism
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What are 3 ways to predict a volcanic eruption?
1. Gas emissions 2. Earth tremors 3. 'Bulging' of volcano's flanks
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How can you reduce the risk of volcanoes and earhquakes?
Preparedness and Mitigation
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What is preparedness and Mitigation?
Preparedness is planning emergency services and warning systems, as well as evacuation routes. Mitigation is reducing the impact through hazard resistant buildings and disaster kits.
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Give 3 examples of how developed world houses can be made safer for hazards?
1. Deep foundations that allow movement 2. Shock absorbers built into structure 3. Cross bracing to prevent collapsing floors
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Give 3 examples of how developing world houses can be made safer for hazards
1. Reduce roof weight 2. Use lightweight, hollow bricks 3. Strengthen wall corners with wire mesh and cement
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How do tectonic plates move?
The magma near the core heats up and becomes less dense and therefore rises. It then cools and becomes more dense and therefore sinks. This creates a current in a circular motion (convection currents)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Name the 2 parts of the Mantle


Asthenosphere and Mantle

Card 3


Name the 2 parts of the Core


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Which of the two crusts are thicker?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define convection currents


Preview of the front of card 5
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