Geography-Restless Earth

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Lucyjoyce
  • Created on: 02-05-14 08:55
Name the 2 parts of the Lithosphere
Oceanic Crust and Continental Crust
1 of 46
Name the 2 parts of the Mantle
Asthenosphere and Mantle
2 of 46
Name the 2 parts of the Core
Outer Core and Inner Core
3 of 46
Which of the two crusts are thicker?
Continental
4 of 46
Define convection currents
Convection currents are the movement of limbs (magma) in the mantle that cause tectonic plates to move around and create hotspots
5 of 46
What are 2 results of convection currents?
Hotspots and movement of tectonic plates
6 of 46
What are the 3 main types of plate boundary?
1. Constructive margins 2. Destructive margins 3. Conservative margins
7 of 46
How are constructive margins formed?
Rising magma splits up continental crust and forms new oceans
8 of 46
What can also be created from constructive margins?
A continental rift zone
9 of 46
How are destructive margins formed?
Oceanic plates collide with continental plates and because the oceanic plates are denser than continental plates it sinks underneath the continental plate.
10 of 46
What is the process of destructive plate margins called?
Subduction
11 of 46
What are the two results of destructive plate margins?
1. Volacanic arcs 2. Fold mountains
12 of 46
How are conservative margins formed?
Two plates slide past each other in the same direction or in a different direction
13 of 46
What are two facts about conservative margins?
1. Crust is neither created or destroyed 2. Volcanoes do not form there
14 of 46
What happens at a conservative plate margin?
As plates move past each other tension builds and then a sudden lurch along the fault creates large and frequent earthquakes
15 of 46
Give an example of a conservative plate margin
San Andreas Fault
16 of 46
Give two examples of a destructive plate margin
1. Nazca Plate and South American Plate 2. The Andes
17 of 46
Give an example of a constructive plate margin
Mid Atlantic Ridge
18 of 46
What are the two types of volcanoes?
1. Composite (strato) 2. Shield
19 of 46
What are four characteristics of a composite volcano?
1. Steep slopes and small area 2. Consist of alternate layers of ash and lava 3. Viscous magma/lava 4. Infrequent and large erruptions
20 of 46
Name 2 examples of composite volcanoes
1. Mt. Pinatubo (Phillipenes) 2. Mt. Sakurajima (Japan)
21 of 46
What are four characteristics of a shield volcano?
1. Low slopes and large area 2. Almost all made of lava 3. Fluid lava 4. Frequent and gentle erruptions
22 of 46
Name 2 examples of shield volcanoes
1. Mauna Loa (Hawaii, USA) 2. Mt. Nyiragongo (DRC)
23 of 46
Why would living near a volcano be an advantage?
Extremely fertile soil for agriculture
24 of 46
What is attractive about living near an earthquake region?
Could be a central and important location
25 of 46
What causes a tsunami?
Large volcanic eruptions and sub-sea earthquakes
26 of 46
Define a tsunami
A series of large, destructive ocean waves that flood far inland. It is a secondary hazard
27 of 46
Describe two characteristics of a tsunami wave
1. 900km/h 2. Up to 20-30m high
28 of 46
What are the two factors that control the severity of earthquakes?
1. Magnitude on the Richter Scale 2. The depth, shallow earthquakes are more destructive
29 of 46
State the four factors that affect the impact of earthquakes
1. Distance from epicentre 2. Time of day 3. Level of preparedness 4. Quality of emergency services
30 of 46
What are primary and secondary impacts?
1. Primary impacts are an immediate effect on property and people- e.g shaking and property destruction 2. Secondary impact is the impact on property and people after the event has finished- e.g Lack of shelter and basic supplies
31 of 46
Give an example of a developing world earthquake
Port-au-Prince, Haiti in January 2010
32 of 46
State four facts about the Port-au-Prince earthquake
1. Magnitude 7.0 2. Depth 13km 3. Time 5pm 4. 316,000 deaths and 300,000 injured
33 of 46
Give two primary impacts and two secondary impacts for the Port-au-Prince earthquake
Primary 1. Economic losses of £8.5 billion 2. Poverty and slum housing made people vulnerable Secondary 1. 1 million people made homeless 2. Infrastructure damage prevented trade
34 of 46
Give an example of a developed world earthquake
Canterbury, New Zealand in September 2010
35 of 46
State four facts about the Canterbury earthtquake
1. Magnitude 7.1 2. Depth 10km 3. Time 4:30am 4. No deaths and about 100 injuries
36 of 46
Give a primary impact and a secondary impact for the Canterbury earthquake
Primary- Property damage of £1.8 billion Secondary- A major aftershock in Christchurch killed 185 people
37 of 46
What are three of the response and relief efforts for the Port-au-Prince earthquake in Haiti
1. Red Cross dispatched a relief team 2. World vision provided necessities and educational services 3. President Obama promised $100 billion in aid
38 of 46
Give an example of a recent volcanic eruption
Mt Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland 2010 eruption)
39 of 46
State two primary impacts and two secondary impacts of the Iceland 2010 eruption
Primary 1. 360,000 people evacuated and 275 killed 2. Villages and farms destroyed from ash fall Secondary 1. Thousands of people spent weeks living in cramped emergency centres 2. Economic loses of $600 million from farming and tourism
40 of 46
What are 3 ways to predict a volcanic eruption?
1. Gas emissions 2. Earth tremors 3. 'Bulging' of volcano's flanks
41 of 46
How can you reduce the risk of volcanoes and earhquakes?
Preparedness and Mitigation
42 of 46
What is preparedness and Mitigation?
Preparedness is planning emergency services and warning systems, as well as evacuation routes. Mitigation is reducing the impact through hazard resistant buildings and disaster kits.
43 of 46
Give 3 examples of how developed world houses can be made safer for hazards?
1. Deep foundations that allow movement 2. Shock absorbers built into structure 3. Cross bracing to prevent collapsing floors
44 of 46
Give 3 examples of how developing world houses can be made safer for hazards
1. Reduce roof weight 2. Use lightweight, hollow bricks 3. Strengthen wall corners with wire mesh and cement
45 of 46
How do tectonic plates move?
The magma near the core heats up and becomes less dense and therefore rises. It then cools and becomes more dense and therefore sinks. This creates a current in a circular motion (convection currents)
46 of 46

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the 2 parts of the Mantle

Back

Asthenosphere and Mantle

Card 3

Front

Name the 2 parts of the Core

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which of the two crusts are thicker?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define convection currents

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Natural hazards resources »