Geography-RESTLESS EARTH-tsunami-supervolcanoes

mind map to revise supervolcanoes and tsunami in restless earth topic

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  • geography
    • tsunami
      • destructive plate boundary
        • plates jerk
          • displace column of water
            • column split-water travel ashore
      • boxing day tsunami 2004
        • 91 manitude
        • 30m high wave
        • epicentre= west coast of summatra
        • countries affected
          • indoneisa
          • thailand
          • india
          • sri lanka
        • effects
          • 230,000 killed
          • 1.7 million homes lost
          • towns villages destroyed
          • infrastucture destoyed
            • road
            • water pipes
          • 5-6 million need emergency food,water,medical
          • environmental damage
            • sea water= no crops
            • coral reefs,amngroves,sand dunes destoryed
        • response
          • short term
            • money pledged from foreign gov, charities, individual+business
              • give-fod water, supplies, and tents and medical
              • sent ships, soldiers,,specialist teams
                • rescue
                • distribute resources
                • help clear up
          • long term
            • billions pounds- rebuild infrastucture
            • progammes to rebuild house+ emplyment issues
            • tsunami warning ysytem in INDIAN OCEAN
            • disaster warning plans made
              • trained volunteers help locals
    • supervolcanoes
      • characteristics
        • destructve margines
        • over hot spot
        • caldera
          • crater many times of vent
          • large size
        • large volume of material
        • flat
          • cover large area
      • process
        • magma rise through crust cracks
          • magma basin forms
            • pressure build- bulge-km wide
              • bulge crack-create vent
                • lava escape,erupt=earthquakes
                  • plumes of ash and rock
                    • magma basin empties
                      • bulge not supported
                        • bulge collapse =more lava
                          • eruption finished= caldera left
      • example
        • yellowstone
        • thousands of cubic of ash and lava
        • pyroclastic flow- kill burn bury
        • tens of miles destoyed
        • ash block sunlght
        • ash cover field- no crop- stavattion

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