Geography B Dynamic Planet Chapter 5: Costal change and conflict

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Name a hard rock and a soft rock.
Granite, Chalk- Hark rock (resistant to erosion). Clay-Soft Rock (easily eroded by the sea).
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What is the shape of cliffs like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?
HD-high, steep and rugged. SD-may be high but less rugged and not so deep
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What is the cliff face like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?
HD-Cliff face is often bear with no vegetation and loose rock.SD-There may be piles of mud and clay which have slipped down the face of the cliff.
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What is the foot of the cliff like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?
HD- A few boulders and rocks which have fallen from the cliff. SD-Very few rocks, some sand and mud.
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How can waves erode the coast through hydraulic action?
Hydraulic action – the force of the water hits the cliffs, forcing pockets of air into cracks, when the wave retreats the air inside expands quickly causing a minor explosion.
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How can waves erode the coast through abrasion?
Coast is worn down by material carried by the waves, waves hurl the particles against the rock, sometimes at a high velocity.
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How can waves erode the coast through attrition?
Material carried by the waves will become rounder and smaller over time *** it collides with other particles and all the sharp edges get knocked off.
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How can waves erode the coast through corrosion/solution?
This is the chemicals within the water wear the away rock. The acids in salt water slowly dissolve rocks on the coast wearing them away as they do so e.g chalk, limestone
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Give an example of a discordant coast and a concordant coast.
D-Swanage bay C- Lulworth cove
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Give an example of a cave, stack and arch.
C- Strangle pot A-Durdle door S-Old harry
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Name and explain the 2 different types of waves
Swash-when waves break, water rushes up the beach, due to energy from the wave. Backwash-when water has lost its energy further up the beach, it runs back down again due to gravity.
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What are the features of a destructive wave?
They break with a lot of energy and force which means that they have the power to the erosion of beaches as they remove that sediment and sand. They arrive at a quick and high frequency. The backwash is stronger than the swash. 5-6.
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What is fetch?
The distance of sea over which wind blows and waves move towards the coastline
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Name the factors that affect whether a coast will erode?
Rock type, human interference, type of waves, weather
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What are the features of a constructive wave?
They are calm weak waves without much wind. They have a low frequency. They deposit sand and sediment to the coastline. The swash is greater than the back wash. Waves can reach to about 1 metre.
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How waves are be formed?
By the wind blowing over the sea and as they reach the sea they break.
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What is a cliff?
A cliff is a sheer rock face, facing out to sea
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Draw a diagram to explain the process of longshore drift.
Material is carried along the coastline is a zig zag pattern known as longshore drift. The direction of this id determined by the wind direction Diagram
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What are sub aerial processes?
Land based procedures which alter the shape of the coastline. A combination of weathering and mass movement. They weaken the cliff for the waves.
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What is the coast line?
The coastline is the narrow zone between the land and the sea.
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What is weathering?
It is the breakdown of rock by natural process without the involvement of forces
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What is slumping?
It often happens when the bottom of the cliff is eroded. The slope becomes steeper and the cliff can slide downward in a rotational manner this is usually triggered by saturation.
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What is biological weathering?
The roots of vegetation and grow crack into cracks in a rock and split the rock apart.
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What is freeze thaw?
When water enters a crack in a rock and then if freezes, it expands and splits the rock.
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What is chemical weathering (acid rain)?
When the chemicals in water reacts with the mineral in the rock.
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What is mass movement?
The downslope movement of material due to gravity.
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What is coastal deposition?
When the sea deposits material. Including sand, sediment and shingle. Constructive waves are needed for coastal deposition features to form.
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How are beaches formed?
Beaches form in sheltered environments e.g bays as the waves don’t take the sediment away. The waves sort out the material pushing the bigger material to the back of the beach and the finer material nearer to the sea.
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What a bar and how is it formed?
Spit ish + It is formed when a spit grows and builds across an estuary. The bar cuts off rivers from the sea so behind it a fresh water lake of lagoon is formed e.g slapton ley in Devon
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How might climate change affect coasts?
Sea levels are predicted to rise because of cc. meaning low lying areas e.g Bangladesh are at risk of flooding .There is likely to be more frequent/stronger storms meaning some coastlines are eroded faster. May damage depositional features.
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Front

What is the shape of cliffs like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?

Back

HD-high, steep and rugged. SD-may be high but less rugged and not so deep

Card 3

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What is the cliff face like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What is the foot of the cliff like on a hard rock coast in contrast to a soft rock coast?

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Card 5

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How can waves erode the coast through hydraulic action?

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