Factors tht affect the location of secondary indus

- pollution control

- available market

- energy supply

- good comunications transport

- government

- sources of workforce skilled labour

- accessability to raw materials

- good site generally flat

- capital money

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South wales iron and steel

- In 1860 there were 35 ironworks in the valley of south wales

- Houses around were small terraces

- Whole villages were dependant upon the local ironworks

- In 1997 only 1 steelwork was open

- In 1990 there were only 2 steel works left

- Valleys led to costal ports

- Limestone was quarried nearby

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Reasons for the location of the Nissan Car Plant,

- lots of flat land

- good road access

- close to city for labour

- raw materials transported easy

- lots of skilled labour

- government grants

- taxes reduced

- cheap land

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Deindustrialisation and Reindustrialisation

Deindustrialisation is the process of social and economic change caused by the removal of or reduction in economic activity in an area or region.

Reindustrialisatiion is the revitalisation of an industry or industrial society through government aid or tax incentives.

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Transnational Corporations

These are companies that are huge in size and employ thousand of people.

They usually have many factories in different factories in lots of different countries.

There many factories all over the world allow them to access foreign markets and get around import taxes and win over the local population.

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Advantages of Transnational Corporations

- bring in capital

- bring in technology

- bring in knowledge

- bring in expertise

- bring in skills

- set up industries

- create jobs

- increase exports

- multiplier effect

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Disadvantages of Transnational Corporations

- few jobs when industries are capital intensive

- technologue used rather than people

- low wages

- avoid taxes

- export profits

- limited range

- poor safety records

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Volcanoes + Earthquakes

Volcanoes are situated on the edges of continents.

Earthquakes are mainly found in a ring of fire.

Seismis = earthquakes + volcanoes are located

Aseismic = not there

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The Structure of the Earth

Crust = 6 to 35 km thick = thin layer of earth only 0-60km thick

There are two types of crusts

- continental

- oceanic

Mantle = 2000 km thick = widest section with a 2900km diameter = made of semi-molten rock called magma

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The Structure of the Earth part 2

Liquid Outer Core = 2000 km thick = surrounding the inner core = liquid layer made of iron and nickel = temperatures up to 5500 degrees celcius

Solid Inner Core = 1370 km radius = in the centre of the earth and is the hottest part of the earth = made up of iron and nickel with temperatures u to 5500 degrees celcius

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Evidence for Continental Drift

- sea fossils at top of mountain

- some continents fit together like a jigsaw

- some types of rocks on different continents

- fossil evidence on different continents

- unique animal life on Madagascer

- Austrailian plants and animals are different

- animals changed as continents moved apart

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Passive Margin - conservative

- found when 2 plates are forced to slide past one another

- sudden release of energy

- no volcanic activity

- earthquakes occur when plates stick

- american plate moves slowly and at a slight angle into the pacific plate


San Andreas Fault


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Compressional Margin - Destructive

- oceanic and continental plates involved

- crusts meet

- oceanic crust goes down to mantle in subductive zone

- causes little explosions

- crust melts

- pushes crust up to create lines of volcanoes

- frequent catastrophic volcanic eruptions after earthquakes


South american plate and nasca plate

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Collision Margin - Destructive

- Indian Plate and Eurasion Plate - neither can sink

- Movement accounts for massive earthquakes

- Mount Everest is increasing in height

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Tensional Margin - Constructive

- Two plates move away from each other

- Molten rock or magma rises to fill gaps

- Atlantic ocean is widening by 9cm a year


Mid-Atlantic ridge


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What causes earthquakes?

Most earthquakes are caused by movement along a fault.

They can occur anywhere but mainly along plate boundaries.

At plate boundaries there is movement of the rocks due to convection currents building up heat and pressure, causing earthquake.

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The Focus and The Epicentre

The point at which the earthquake happens below the ground surface is called the focus.

Point on the ground surface directly above the focus.

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Primary Effects and Secondary Effects of Earthquak

Primary effects which are the immediate damage caused by the quake,

- collapsing buildings

- collapsing roads

- collapsing bridges

Secondary effects which are the after effects of the earthquake,

- fire

- tsunamis

- landslides

- disease

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Earthquakes in LEDC's

The effects of an earthquake would be greatest in a LEDC as buildings would not be well built, health care would not be as rapid and brilliant.

Also, urban areas would be greatly effected as around and more building would collapse causing more deaths.

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In places such as China, Japan death tole after earthquakes are high.

America and Alaska have small amounts of deaths after earthquakes.

In China a 8.3 magnitude earthquake killed 830,000 but a earthquake with that magnitude in USA only killed one person.

Only 1 person died in Fort Tejan as it is in the middle of nowhere and not many if any people live there.

Lots of people died in Tokoyo, Japan as it is a major city.

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Stages of Volcanoes

Extinct = it will never again = Devils Tower, Wyoming

Dormant = it hasn't erupted in 2000 years = Sontorini, Greece

Active = it has erupted recently and is likely to erupt again = Mt Etna, Sicily

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Shield Volcanoe

- small

- low/short

- wide base

- thin lava

- spread out lava

- less explosive

- basaltic lava

- tensional plate boundary

- hot spot

- lava moves quickly

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Composite Cone Volcanoe

- tall

- narrow base

- thick lava

- andesitic lava

- violent

- explosive

- found at copressional plate boundaries

- aa lava

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