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energy political factors
OPEC - 1973 $3 to $11, 2009 7% reduction $60 to $80, gulf war - 1990-91 700 wells, 400,000,000 gallons, 6 million barrels per day persian gulf
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energy physical factors
coal sedimentary rock, folding synclines anticlines, faulting, open cast cheap, china - 18% world coal, import aus, 40% rail network G110 2010 10 days 6000 to 80,000 2012 new railway
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energy economic factors
ukraine - 2008 russia 1/2 supplies, $1.5 billion debt 80% europe gas gazprom, belarus - 2007 cut off pipe from russia 96% poland 25% german, 2009 all pipes cut EU supply down 20% price disputes
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energy mix LEDC india
N 1%, combust 24%, renew 2%, coal 42%, gas 7%, oil 24% - agriculture 1/2 employment 20% GDP, industry 18% jobs, 1000 billion investment needed, 5th largest energy consumer, 800 million houses combust, 1971 HEP 40% opposition now 14%
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energy mix MEDC sweden
oil 29%, nuclear 38%, HEP 26% - 8th highest GDP, metamorphic rock, lulealv river 10%, nuclear oskarsham ringhals forsmark barseback - 1999 1st reactor shut 2nd 2005, referendum 1979 10% oppose, 2020 oil free 50% renewable, EU 6% S 25%, 62% homes biom
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energy california sustainable management
N 19%, hydro 10%, renew 3%, coal 8%, gas 50% richest, 1990 levels 2020, 80% 2050, HEP: 21%, 16% 5% import oraville folsom, solar: 1% 360 sun <150mm ppt, 250 hectares, wind: 14,000, 1.5% 1800MW 2004-10 add 1000mw, biomass: 2% 28 plant 550mw add 2000mw
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energy bedzed sustainable management
heating demand down 90% - 300mm insulation, 20% energy use of av. household, 25% reduction electricity demand, 40 car charging points, 3 gas condensing boilers, 81% reduction in heating, 64% reduction car mileage, 45% reduction energy use
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energy darfur solar cookers sustainable management
portable solar cookers refugee camps, no more collecting firewood risking attacks, more time, self sustaining economic activity, means of cooking, jobs and incomes, better health, less CO2 and deforestation
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energy three gorges dam china opportunities
18,200mw power, millions of jobs, 15 million people, 1.5 million hectares protected from floods, 100,000m2 water storage, low emission power - equivalent coal = 100,000,000 tonnes CO2
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energy niger delta nigeria challenges
60% west fish, 2006 top 5 polluted areas, 500 million tonnes oil spilt 4 per week, 1989-03 20,000km mangrove lost, 95% export earnings, 60% locals poverty, 1-13% revenue nigerians, $14 billion wasted stolen MOSOP MEND 90% unemployed
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energy nuclear
fukishima - 80,000 evacuated, electricity rationed, 20km exclusion zone, allowed in for two hours, 70cm by 70cm bag, temporary accomodation, japan - 2004 28%, expensive, uranium needed, 80% energy depends on imports, some CO2 used, convert missiles
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energy kyoto protocol
UK - 15% renewable 2020, cut GHG 60% from 1990 by 2050, global agreement MEDC, ratified 2004, carbon credits trading, clean development mechanisms, fines if you go over allowance
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rural characteristics
social: close knit, ethnically homogeneous, family, rich, consvertaive, less mobile, economic: farming, tourism, commuters, environment: sparse spread out, peaceful, tranquil, large houses and gardens
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rural christaller central place theory
assume: flat land, even population purchasing power, transport costs, villages: 1st order very small, small market town: 2nd order over surrounding villages, small, larger town: 3rd order, surrounding market towns and villages, big
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rural key terms
catchment area = sphere of influence = area over which settlement exerts influence, range of good = distance consumers travel to buy, high order = less frequent, low order = everyday goods, threshold population = min number needed to provide service
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rural developing areas
30% - 80% pop, birth rates high - 2.6%, decline famine and disease, 40% - 80% subsistent farmers fishermen, high poverty <$1, technology improves, bleak future, 3-4hrs out, tourists area / game park 1hr, provincial towns short distance clokes model
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rural developed areas
10% - 30% pop, mostly 50+ age group, rural decline in less popular areas, <10% employed in farming - most commute, few services, pockets of poverty mostly wealthier than urban, leisure and tourism, national parks 2hrs, village 30mins, urban sprawl
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rural framlingham
opportunities: possibilities offered, function: general use, counterurbanisation, A12, high order, f and o: museum, st michaels church, town trail, fram college, framlingham mere, framtyres, castle, trulock and harris, crown hotel, countryvision
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rural hudsons model
stage 1 - orginal core, early infills, isolates, stage 2 - orginal core, early infills, isolates, early ribbons, stage 3 - orginal core, early infills, isolates, early ribbons, recent additions, adjuncts
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rural rurality curve
econ development bottom, % pop in rural side, 100%: LDC rural subsistence, 80%: LEDC cores develop, cities for work, 60%: RIC rural decline, young migrate for work, 40%: NIC urbanisation, industrialisation urban sprawl, 10%: MEDC, 20%: counterurban
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rural push pull factors
push: high houses prices, small houses, high crime rates, traffic, no tranquillity, pull: large peaceful outdoors, open fresh air, large houses gardens, strong communities, close to friends and family
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rural counter-urbanisation socio-economic issues
house prices up: 3 bed semi detached 1990 £60,000 2007 £180,000, 10x average income of locals, commuters can afford, confict social division: more traffic loss of community, homogeneous modern buildings - clones, drill hall demolished, elderly suffer
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rural counter-urbanisation environmental issues
flooding: 35 hectares to 646 homes, floodplains river ore, 66 people, 81 properties flooding risk, 1% flood risk, warning plans, 2km hedgerow lost, 1970s 50% drop farmland bird pop, planning restrictions on greenbelt use brownfield instead
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rural traffic congestion problems
stress, pollution. opportunity cost, noise pollution, accidents, impacts house prices
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rural traffic management CHUMMS
A14 most congested 2 lane road, 40% more traffic than 1993, rat runners, £5 million from gov 2003-07 48 traffic calming schemes in 9 villages, willingham: £370,000 2 kerb build outs, 30mph speed camera, B1050 2 zebra crossings
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rural traffic management guided busway
7th august 2011, 3 routes every 10 minutes, 40mins st ives cambridge, projected £150 million actual £181 million, aimed april 2009, need cheaper tickets, more stops, more buses, no effect on A14, waste of money, misguided busway
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rural traffic management toll road
£22 million, 32km stretch, two new roads alongside A14 bypass villages, toll on A14, diverts traffic from villages, faster flow, funds raised to community, increase trade, unpopular, long term only, costly, haulage companies suffer, wont solve
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rural traffic management widening A14
2021 15% increase in traffic, £22 million investment in region, £7.7 million add 3rd lane eastbound, £690 million to £1.2 billion to widen from ellington to fen ditton, open 2015-16, reduce traffic, more growth, may not clear queues, viaduct restrict
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rural lake district rural decline
national park - calm beautiful serene, reality - cold rainy touristy declining >2500mm ppt, 6/11 post offices, second homes, 1991-01 pop: wythop -28%, borrowdale -13%, allerdale - high dependency ratio, high prop 45-64 in UK, service decline
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rural decline socio-economic problems
20% 30,000 local shops gone 1995-2000, loss of jobs, population, income, services, transport, high dependency ratio
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rural decline environmental problems
population decline, cities have jobs, mechanisation and agglomeration of farms, decline of hill farming and slate quarrying, LDNPA: 1951 maintain area, 1998-04 655 restorations, braesteads farm - overlooked by striding edge, crossdale hoggast £54,000
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rural tourism keswick problems
15.8 million visitors, £925 million, 11,575 jobs, 17% houses UK 2nd homes, 4% LD, houses 24% more than av, av income £26,000 house £260,000, conston primary school, capacity 98 2005 75, 2009 52, wage 12% below av cumbria, 20,000 37% employed tourism
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rural foothpath erosion coledale house
7 million walkers, >2500mm ppt, vegetation removed, strong winds rain wash away soil, ruts form, peat releases CO2, soil inversion: 2002-11 repaired 145, stone pitching: whiteless pike buttermere, helicopter £850/hr, 1 tonne/journey 25 tonnes
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rural common agricultural policy 1960 - 1990
1962, investment grants: soil compaction erosion siltation. surface runoff, hedgerow removal, intervention buying, use of agrochemicals, eutrophication, monoculture, increased cultivated area
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rural common agricultural policy 1960 - 1990 east anglia
hedgerow: 60% removed, agglomeration mechanisation, loss of habitats, water pollution: nitrate phosphate fertilisers leach, costs £225 million per year, peaty or breckland soil vulnerable to erosion
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rural common agricultural policy reforms set aside
1992-2008, reduce overproduction, habitats for animals skylarks lapwings, 5% arable land east england, must: grow green cover crop, land untouched jan to july, not use agrochemicals, paid for leaving land fallow controversial - expensive £51bn 47% EU
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rural common agricultural policy reforms single payment scheme
2005 paid per ha land in cultivatable condition, up to £230/ha/yr, cross compliance: repair walls hedgerows, not overgraze, reduce artificial fertiliser, 6m buffer strips, less intensive, market driven crop choice, fewer animals grazing pastures moor
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rural common agricultural policy reforms environmental stewardship and nitrate vulnerable zones
ES: 2005 £30/ha/yr management protection, NVZ: 2002 use of chemical fertilisers = 70% nitrates ground surface water, 55% east england, limit nitrate applications, limit organic applications 310kg/ha/yr, record fertilisers used
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rural langton grove farm eye suffolk CAP
223ha, 2 full time, 10-20% crop higher crop yields, 16ha 16% set aside - 12ha oil seed ****, cut hedges minimum height 2m, 1996 - nursery, 2005 - 60 children 19 staff 14 full time
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rural ralegan siddhi
140km E mumbai, 70% pop subsistence farm 1975, medical 14km shirur, 1971 30% literate 72 women 290 men, top down: 100 days work, bottom: anna hazare 1979 ban alcohol, x2 literacy rates 1971, 55 acres irrigate 1971 700 now, H2O 20m to 6.5m, 2200 rupee
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urban characteristics
UK: freestanding built up area with service core sufficient variety, conurbation: spread, sprawl: increase size, urbanisation: increase pop, deprivation: material poverty low incomes, IMD 1 to 100 crime education health employment environment
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urban function / land use
residential housing, commercial shops, industry factory, admin offices, other public school, transport station, recreational parks, tourism picnic site
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urban burgess zonal model
CBD: commerce transport dense few residencies, inner city: around CBD poor housing run down renovated, suburbs: housing cheap land commuters less crime pollution, rural fringe: edge fewer larger housing mostly residential
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urban hoyt sector model
influenced by transport corridors, factories on transport lines, low class near industry, high class upwind
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urban bid rent model
rents decrease as distance from CBD increases, affected by soil quality, university
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urban maps land use
CBD: random roads oldest part public buildings ring roads surround, outer CBD: grid layout cheap efficient 19th century housing former industry near, suburbs: curved streets cul de sacs expensive detached semi detached houses play areas post 1900
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urban cambridge MEDC land use
tourism: big income green spaces attractive so stay strawberry fair, university: most of CBD expensive high rise housing around influences wealth and jobs, river cam: flood plain cheap housing, transport station 1 mile out addenbrookes cherry hinton
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urban nairobi LEDC land use
high income residential: high ridge cool away from swamp european colonists, industrial zone: borders railway river mgog for waste chemicals food clothing, CBD: parliment buildings commercial, middle income residential: south for foreign worker
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urban nairobi LEDC land use cont.
low income residential: black cotton soils marshy, shanty settlements: corruption incompetence flood plains rubbish dumps industry 55% pop kibera 1mill, open space: N and W parks gold 100,000 2005, self help: dandora 120,000 1977 gov scheme cheap
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urban east london docklands deprivation
pre WW1 busiest port, 1970s decline 10,000 jobs lost, 1980s redevelopment £10bn LDDC, 25,000 homes offices, 760ha derelict land, 41% U24 in gangs, 2nd lowest salary london £20,000, 1 in 4 homes overcrowded, canary wharf highest salary / unemployment
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urban clays lane top down approach
social university housing in 2012 boundary, 450 residents up to 8 people per house, relocated by 2007, £8500 compensation, 50% olympic village social housing post games, no residents consulted, cold, loss of jobs in area
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urban streets of growth bottom up community based approach
2001 tower hamlets, 11-20 yr olds in most deprived area, training and education, charity - limited funds, give community voice, 2011 - 300 young people helped
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urban london traffic
1 million enter 7am to 10am, 80% public transport, 40,000 vehicles per hour, 1/2 time at standstill, 4,367 deaths from pollution per year, £3 million per week lost productivity, risk of accidents, less access emergency services
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urban traffic management barclays cycle hire boris bikes
july 2010, 570 stations, 8000 bikes, £1 per day, £45 per year, 1st 30 mins free 95% rides, 18,500 per day 2010, £150 million, £25 million barclays
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urban traffic management congestion charge
£8 enter 7am to 6:30pm, 30% less congestion, 16% less vehicles, 14% shorter journey times, 20% less accidents, hits all traffic worse elsewhere, less revenue in area
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urban traffic management low emission zone
£100 lorries buses vans 4x4 vehicles over 10 years old, impacts companies with old vehicle fleets, £500 fine
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urban london water pollution issues
39 million tonnes sewage into thames per year, population tripled 150 yr old system cant cope, 2mm rain, overflows 50 times per year, 29th june 2011: 30mm ppt 250,000 tonnes thousands fish killed 12km cleanup zone
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urban london water pollution solutions
treatment works: £675 million 5 new plants increase capacity by 50%, lee tunnel: 4 miles 60 million tonnes abbeygate to beckon £1 billion including treatment plants, thames tunnel: 75m deep 7m wide 20 miles long stops 96% river waste £3.6bn 2021
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urban london waste management
74% landfill, 18% recycled, 8% burnt, 4.4 million tonnes MHW per year, 2020 6.5 million tonnes, pop increase 800,000, 500 vehicles 18 landfill stes 2 incinerators 28 recycling plants, 76% waste exported 120km, 1/4 methane, 75% 1995 by 2010 35% 2020
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urban lower lea valley redevelopment
1km from city, fragmented 100s small plots, vacant 30 years, 42% inner london brownfield sites, 80% soil contaminated, waterways power lines criss cross, development expensive
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urban sustainable management 2012 london olympics environmental
japanese knotwood, velodrome: 100% sustainable wood 1000 tonnes steel saved, aimed to recycle 40% achieved 90%, 9% energy renewable, 15000m living roof, big carbon footprint
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urban sustainable management bedzed london
2002, 56% less CO2, 50% less water, natural lights 45% reduction energy use, 300mm insulation, garden for biodiversity, secure bike parking, transport links, brownfield site
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urban sustainable management 2012 london olympics socio-economic
50,000 jobs 20 years, 10-20% local workers 75% unemployed, 7% overall, stratford city 500 acres, 5 million ft media centre to offices, ODA: 222 women 8 months training, 250 businesses cant afford relocation
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Card 2

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coal sedimentary rock, folding synclines anticlines, faulting, open cast cheap, china - 18% world coal, import aus, 40% rail network G110 2010 10 days 6000 to 80,000 2012 new railway

Back

energy physical factors

Card 3

Front

ukraine - 2008 russia 1/2 supplies, $1.5 billion debt 80% europe gas gazprom, belarus - 2007 cut off pipe from russia 96% poland 25% german, 2009 all pipes cut EU supply down 20% price disputes

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Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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N 1%, combust 24%, renew 2%, coal 42%, gas 7%, oil 24% - agriculture 1/2 employment 20% GDP, industry 18% jobs, 1000 billion investment needed, 5th largest energy consumer, 800 million houses combust, 1971 HEP 40% opposition now 14%

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

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oil 29%, nuclear 38%, HEP 26% - 8th highest GDP, metamorphic rock, lulealv river 10%, nuclear oskarsham ringhals forsmark barseback - 1999 1st reactor shut 2nd 2005, referendum 1979 10% oppose, 2020 oil free 50% renewable, EU 6% S 25%, 62% homes biom

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