Slides in this set
Coastal zones (part of the land most affected by it's
proximity to the sea) are the most populated part of world
with coastal ports playing a leading role in trade, coastal
landowners producing large amounts of food and coastal
area's being used for leisure activities, and tourism.
However they're in huge demand causing pressures and
threats. It's an open system involving inputs & internal
transfers as well as outputs of water, sediment and energy in a state of dynamic equilibrium
(balanced state when inputs & outputs are equal) and can be upset particularly by human
Sea Coastal ecosystems, wave energy
Land Shape of coastline, relief, beach,
& direction, size & wave type,
structure, resistance of rocks, river
longshore drift, water depth, and long
sediments and ecosystems. Nature term sea level changes.
Weather & Climate Wind strength & coasts Human activities Intervention in
directions, rainfall, temperature and natural systems, use of land, and
storms. exploration of resources.…read more
In 1990's around 30% of worlds population lived on the coast, and by 2002 this figure
stood at 40%. It's argued this is because of the coastal ecosystems. The items in blue are
the ones most relevant to coastal ecosystems. Early attractions can be explained by the lack
of roads, and large areas of untouched wilderness. Coastal tourism took off in 1850's but
people lived in coastal areas as early as 1000, and 1300, due to food security, transport
opportunities and economic & political activity.…read more
The growth of coastal resorts
Most UK seaside resorts date back to the Victorian period when they took off due to
the introduction of the railway. They gradually grew through building new attractions
such as piers. However in the 60's & 70's the package holiday began to take off and
seaside resorts started to go into decline so in the 80's regeneration took place such as
and upgraded railway, to try and attack new visitors but wasn't overly successful
which is why many are now
run down. The model below
shows how a seaside resort
should ideally look however
many no longer look like that
as they've gone into decline.
Fieldwork should include:
Mapping tourist attractions
Building age survey
Traffic count…read more
Case study: Blackpool
Location: North West England along
Lancashire coast, approximately 30km from
Liverpool and 40km from Manchester.
Reasons for growth: During 18th century
seaside holidays became fashionable. In 1846
the railway was invented cutting costs & time
And in the 1870's, `wakes week' introduce
so thousands visited Blackpool. During WW1 period, 4 million visitors came in the high season
and towns population reached nearly 150000. The tower, promenades, piers, amusement
arcades, music halls and theatres were built attracting more people.
Reasons for decline: After WW2 the decline began mainly due to the introduction of the
package holiday in 50's allowing UK residents to travel abroad cheaply, meaning a growth in
budget airlines and self-catering holidays which seemed more appealing.
Attempts to regenerate: (1)TRANSPORT & ACCESS - in 1975 it was linked to m6, also had
an airport extension and a new terminal built. (2)CONFERENCES & EVENTS - hosts annual
dance festivals, chess conferences as well as major political conferences. (3)BLACKPOOL
ILLUMNIATION running since 1812 with famous people turning them on. (4)WEEKEND
& SHORT BREAKS marketed for weekends, birthdays, hen do's etc. (5)CASINO RESORT
controversial plan to run as casino resort but was declined. (6)LATEST SCHEME planned
a £500mil indoor complex.
Success of regeneration: Not very, with a population decreased and increased unemployment.…read more
Case study: Benidorm
Location: Along east coast of Spain, on Costa
Blanca coastline, in Alicante. There are 3 airports
along with train & coach access. The annual temp
is 18 degrees + enjoys 3400 hours of sun annually,
with majority of rain in September & October.
Quite mountainous area.
Reasons for growth: (1) HISTORY When moors
arrived the pop began to grow and they improved
their irrigation systems allowing the fishing industry to take off, increasing local economy.
However it started to decline in 1952 so the council had to plan things aimed at tourists. (2)
CURRENT Europe's biggest holiday resort with 5mill tourists annually, and in 210 their
permanent population stood at over 710000, but reached half a million in the summer. The
Benidorm annual international music festival, Indie Music festival, grand cycling tours,4
theme parks and shopping centres all attract visitors.
Responses: Blue flag beaches guarantee safe & clean beaches, which are monitored regularly
making the experience more pleasant. Sewage treatment plants have been put in place to
avoid disease. Pressures in water supplies due to increased population, swimming pools &
golf courses.…read more