Genetics Definitions

  • Created by: kbowler12
  • Created on: 04-11-16 15:31
Polynucleotide
a linear polymer whose molecule is composed of many nucleotide units, constituting a section of a nucleic acid molecule.
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Complimentary Base Pairs
Whatever the sequence, these base pair are connected (A+T, C+G)
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Histone Proteins
They package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes
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Chromatin
Complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
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Chromosomes
Coiled and bundled chromatin
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Chromatids
Copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction
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Nucleotides
Structures that make up DNA
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Deoxyribose
5-Carbon or Pentose sugar
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Nitrogenous Base
Nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base
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RNA
Ribonucleic acid
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Purine
2 rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms
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Pyrimidines
Single ring of carbon and nitrogen
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Phosphodiester Bonds
Linkage between two deoxyribose or ribose sugars on adjacent nucleotides
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Codon
Group of 3 bases coding for an amino acid
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Genetic Code
Meaning of the codon (What the codon codes for)
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Degenerate
More than one codon for an amino acid
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Non-overlapping
Each codon only codes for one amino acid
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Punctuation Codes
Found at the start and end of a sequence. ("Start" signal and three "Stop" signals. They do not code for an amino acid)
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Universal Code
Same base sequence always codes for the same amino acid, regardless of species
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Centromere
The point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fibre during cell division.
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Gametes
Sex cells
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Recessive Gene
Not visible when the dominant gene is present
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Homozygous
Two of the same allele
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Heterozygous
Two different alleles
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Allele
Different version of the same gene
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Double Helix
Pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Whatever the sequence, these base pair are connected (A+T, C+G)

Back

Complimentary Base Pairs

Card 3

Front

They package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Coiled and bundled chromatin

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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