Gender Differences in achievement

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The gender gap
This refers to the difference in achievement between males and females in eduction
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The glass cieling
The idea that discrimination prevents women from progressing in employment and achieving promotions
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What are the external factors affecting gender differences in achievement?
(1) The impact of feminism (2) Changes in the family (3) Changes in women's employment (4) Girls changing ambitions
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How has the impact of feminism contributed to gender differences in achievement?
It has challenged the stereotypical image of women and improved women's rights. This may have raised women's self esteem and career ambitions positively
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What sociologist is associated with the impact of feminism and the improvement in girls achievement?
Angela McRobbie
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What did McRobbie say?
That the media are reflecting the changes in women's position. E.g in the 70's 'Jackie' emphasised importance of marriage but now contain images of strong, assertive women
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Give two examples of how changes in the family have raised girls achievement?
(1) Increase in female headed lone parent families mean women have to be breadwinners - provides a new role model of the financially independent woman and therefore need good qualifications (2) Increase in divorce - you cannot rely on men to provide
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How have changes in women's employment lead to an improvement in girls achievement?
They have encouraged girls to see their future in terms of paid work and an insentive to get into paid work as oppose to being housewives
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Name 3 important changes to womens employement that have happened over the last decade
(1) Pay gap between men and women has fallen from 30% (1975) to 17% (2) Over 70% of women in 2007 were working due to increase in flexible work (3) Laws such as the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 means equal opps for both sexes
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Who is associated with doing research proving changing girls ambitions is the reason for girls greater achievement?
Sue Sharpe
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What did Sue Sharpe's study show?
That since the 1970's, there has been a major shift in girls ambitions from the girls she interviewed at the school 20 years later. Ambitions moved from love, marriage, commitment, to careers and educational
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What are the internal factors affecting gender differences in achievement?
1) equal opportunities 2) positive role models 3) GCSE and coursework 4) Teacher attention and interaction 5) challenging stereotypes in the curriculum 6) League tables
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How has feminism influenced the way schools respond to gender issues?
Through programmes like GIST and WISE
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What is the aim of GIST and WISE?
To encourage girls to take traditionally male dominated subjects like science
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What has national curriculum given girls according to Kelly?
Opportunity to study same subjects as boys
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What does Mitsos and Browne say about the intro of Coursework?
Its positives bc it suits girls learning style - can meet deadlines
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Teacher attention - spender?
teachers spend more time interacting with boys
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Swann?
Boys dominate the conversation - leading to labelling like 'disruptive' while girls are 'co-operative'
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What did Weiner say about textbooks challenging stereotypes in the curriculum?
The removal of girls being the housewife has removed the barrier to girls achievement
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How does Best counteract this view?
childrens books still have stereotypical views of men and women e.g women are the damsels and men are the heroes
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What does Jackson say about league tables?
Girls are valued higher than boys because they improve the position of the school on the league tables. Higher performing schools prefer girls bc might lead to fullfilling prophecy (do 'good' in 'good' schools)
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What factors are affecting boys achievement?
1) Literacy 2) Decline in Male jobs 3) Feminisation of education 4) Laddish Subcultures
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How does literacy affect boys achievement?
Boys leisure persuits do little to develope language whereas girls have a 'bedroom culture' who tend to stay home and talk to friends
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Mitsos and browne on the decline in male job opps
lead to an identity crisis - creates little motivation for boys to get a job
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Sewell on feminisation of education
Schools do not nurture 'masculine' traits such as competitiveness and tend to favour girls more attentive methods
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Epstein on laddish subcultures
He believes that masculinity is socially constructed within schools and w/class are more likely to suffer verbal homophobic abuse if they appear to be 'swots'
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How does Francis support Epstein?
Boys more concerned with being labelled a #swot' than girls bc it threatens their masculinity
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How does Francis argues this affects boys education negatively?
Bc girls are moving into traditionally male jobs so they become 'laddish' to avoid being seen as female
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The idea that discrimination prevents women from progressing in employment and achieving promotions

Back

The glass cieling

Card 3

Front

(1) The impact of feminism (2) Changes in the family (3) Changes in women's employment (4) Girls changing ambitions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

It has challenged the stereotypical image of women and improved women's rights. This may have raised women's self esteem and career ambitions positively

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Angela McRobbie

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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