gender ; influence of culture and the media

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cross-cultural research is noted for its valuable contribution to what debate in GENDER?
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for instance what may we conclude if particular gender-role appears consistent across cultures?
innate biological difference
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if we find gender-role bejaviours to be cultrally specific ehe might assume?
shared norms and socialisation influence
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- cultural differences
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one of the earliest cross-cultural gender role studies was carreid out by who?
margaret mead
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of tribal groups on waht island?
new guinea
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what were the three tribes?
arapesh / mundugomor / tchambuli
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arapesh were what?
gentle and responsive
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similar to western stereotype of?
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and mundugumor similar to western stereotype of masculinity how?
aggressive and hostile
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which gender in tchambuli were dominant and organised village life?
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and men were?
passive and decorative
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what does this suggest about sex and gender?
may not be direct biological relationship
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and instead gender roles are?
culturall determined
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in later work mead conceded what about herself?
underestimated universal nature of many gendertypical behaviours
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however still went on to argue?
extent to which innate behaviours are expressed are laregely result of cultural norms
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cultural similarities
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buss looked at how many countries across all continents?
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an found consistent patterns in?
mate preference
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in all cultures women looked for men who could offer?
wealth and resources
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while men looked for?
youth and physical attractiveness
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also munroe and munroe found what about division of labour in most societies?
organised along gender lines
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:( criticisms of mead
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research criticised of observer bias wy?
not separating own opinions from description fo samoan like
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and for making sweeping generalisations based on?
relatively short period of sutyd
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freeman was highly critical and did what decades after the og inv?
conducted a follow-up study
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he argued mead's findings were flawed wh?
she was misled by some pps
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and preconceptions influenced what?
reading of events
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but freeman's account has also been challenged why?
supporting own theoretical viewpt
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:( imposed etic
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cross0cultural research tupically undertaken by?
western researchers
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taking who to be object of stud?
indigenous pops
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danger that researchers with western dev theories + methods do what?
impose own cultural interests and understanding on ppl stuying
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what is an imposed eitc?
ide western ways doing research is universal
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berry advocates inclusion of what in rsrch ream?
@ least one local
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as a way of guarding against?
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which cross-cultural researcher actually did this?
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and what was his research thing?
the looking for mates one
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:( nature or nurture
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cross cultural research can provide insight into what?
diff cultural practices impacting gender-role behaviour
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but doesn't do what?
solve ature nurture
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in reality its practically and theoretically impossible to do wat?
separate two influences on dev gender roles
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as soon as children born what starts?
socialisation and gender-role expectations
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its likely that what influences dev of gender role?
complex and constant interaction between nature and nurture
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media provide what for children?
role models
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children likely to select role models that do what?
are same sex and engage in gender-appropriate behavioir
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- rigid stereotypes
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evidence that media do provide what?
v clear gender stereotupes
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furnham and farragher did a stidy on what?
tv adverts
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and found men more likley show in?
autonomous professional roles
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and women more often seen?
familial roles in domestic setting
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this suggests what about media?
may play role in reinforcing widespread social stereotupes of gender
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also evidence children who have more exposure to popular media tend to displya what?
more gender-tupical views in behav / attitudes
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media doesn't ust confirm gender-typical behaviour but also?
give info to males and females in terms of likely success of adopting behavioirs
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seeing others perform gender-appropriate behaviours increases child's belief that?
they're capabe of carrying out such behavioirs in the future
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with what bandura called?
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:( correlation > causation
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difficult to establish what with emdia studies?
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may just be that media output does what?
reflects prevailing socil norms
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but it may also be that the media causes norms by doing what?
depicting men / women in certain ways
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vast majority of children exposed to media regularly so what aren't always available?
control groups for comparison
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this comparison would make what easier?
direction establish
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what study though is good in this sense?
notel study
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- the notel study
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williams et al went to the BC town and nicknamed it notel why?
no media
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researchers carried out extensive surveys of town to assess what?
behaviour and attitudes prior to intro tv
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also collected similar data from other two neighbouring towns called?
unitel / multitel
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why unitel?
access to 1 tv channel
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and multitel?
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after how long well all three surveyed again?
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williams et al notice what amon gchildren of three towns?
gender-stereotypical attitudes
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@ start of study which two towns displayed fewer sextyped views / behaviour?
notel / unitel
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at end evidence of stereotypes increased for children of?
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therefore this sutdy provides good suport for?
media influences
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:( counter-stereotypes
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in recent years there have been many examples of what in media?
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which challenge what?
traditional masculinity femininity nitions
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pingree found what about gender stereotyping?
reduced when kids shown tv adverts of non-stereotypical roles for women
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but also found whose stereotypes became stronger when exposed to non-traditional models?
pre-adolescent boys
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this backlash may be explained how?
boys desire to maintain view that ran counter to adults
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Card 2


cross-cultural research is noted for its valuable contribution to what debate in GENDER?



Card 3


for instance what may we conclude if particular gender-role appears consistent across cultures?


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Card 4


if we find gender-role bejaviours to be cultrally specific ehe might assume?


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Card 5


- cultural differences


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