GDR key dates

Yalta Conference: the meeting of Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt and it decided that Germany will be divided into four zones. This would be overseen by the Allied Control Council.
Feb 1945
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Education offered to the working class. In this year only 3% of University students were working class, but this increased to 58% by 1950.
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Potsdam Conference: meeting of Stalin, Atlee and Truman where they decided to initiate a program of denazification. The Allies could not agree on reparations which caused tension between the USSR and the USA.
June 1945
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Land reforms: the SED seized all land and redistributed it more fairly across the population. 33% of all useful agricultural land was redistributed to peasants, but due to the absence of machinery and livestock much of it was abandoned.
September 1945
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The KPD and SPD merged to form the SED. This would create one huge communist party. Western powers did not support the merger. On 31st March, in western zones of Berlin, 20,000 people voted against the merger, with only 3000 voting for.
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The influence of religion was being removed from schools
6 of 84
USA suspends reparations to the USSR in retalation for the Russian's refusal to deliver foodstuffs.
May 1946
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Bizonia created: this was the joining of the UK and USA sectors of Germany. The two countries saw the need to recover a poverty stricken Germany, but also gang up on the USSR.
Summer 1946
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Berlin elections held, SED recieved 20% of the vote
Oct 1946
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Huge amounts of unemployment. Population: 19 million
10 of 84
Marshall Aid: America offers financial aid to Europe. The USSR did not attend the Paris conferenc ein which it was discussed. This essentially divided Europe into two.
June 1947
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The Deutschmark and Ostmark are introduced. This marked a greater divison between the two states.
12 of 84
Trizonia created: now France also merged its sector
May 1948
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Berlin Crisis: The USSR cut off all electricity supplies to West Berlin, as well as any canal routes to the Western Zones. The Western powers responded with the Berlin Airlift.
June 1948
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Berlin crisis ends
May 1949
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FRG is formed
May 1949
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GDR is formed and Ulbricht becomes General Secretary
7th October 1949
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Volkskammer created. People's chmaber - contained reps. from all political parties but in theory the SED held authority.
18 of 84
Landerkammer created. Represented the 5 Lander (states). They could veto legislation.
19 of 84
Stasi created: to defend the state from sabotage. There was 1 Stasi member for every 63 citizens.
March 1950
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1st FYP: introduced centralised state planning and aimed to develop heavy industry. There was still a lakc of consumer goods.
21 of 84
GDR joins COMECON. Supposed to increase economic performance. However, heavily suited to the needs of the USSR.
Sept 1950
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Stasi workforce grew from 1100 to 8800
23 of 84
Religious children faced discrimination in schools
Jan 1951
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Over 331,000 people move to the FRG
25 of 84
Stalin dies. De-stalinisation sees some softening in attitude towardss the churches.
March 1953
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The New Course accepted by Politburo. Called for a slowdown in the development of socialism so that the gov. may gain popular support first.
9th June 1953
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June Uprising: Ulbricht announced a 10% rise in productivity but no rise in wages. This sparked protests, motivated by all the failings of the SED regime.
June 1953
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Reparations to the USSR are ended and the USSR gives them additional funding
1st January 1954
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June Uprising leads the GDR to join the Warsaw Pact
May 1955
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New Course abandoned
June 1955
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Seven Year Plan: aimed to increase worker's productivity by 58%, so living standards took a back seat
32 of 84
2nd FYP: focused on consumer goods and raising living standards
33 of 84
Operation Rose: east German troops began constructing the Berlin wall in the night. The wall was made from concrete slabs and barbed wire.
13th August 1961
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New Economic System (NES) set up to compete with the FRG's economy. Focus on quantity of goods rather than quality.
Jan 1963-68
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East German athletes won 23 medals at Tokyo Olympic Games
36 of 84
Radio station, DT64, was introduced. It played pop music and foreign music.
37 of 84
Family Code: men and women should share equally in domestic work to promote gender equality
38 of 84
Economic System of Socialism (ESS): to be more communist. Planned to extend agriculture and trade.
39 of 84
Came third in the medal table at the Olympics in Mexico
40 of 84
Brezhnev Doctrine: stated that the USSR would intervene shoud any of the Republics or satellite states find themselves in trouble
41 of 84
Ostpolitik: acknowledgement of the GDR. GDR became reliant on the FRG for loans.
42 of 84
Start of state coopperation with the church
43 of 84
Brandt visits the GDR and is welcomed by the crowds
44 of 84
Treaty of Moscow: FRG and USSR agreed to no territorial claims
45 of 84
Treaty of Warsaw: FRG accepted the border between the GDR and Poland
46 of 84
Honecker takes over from Ulbricht
47 of 84
The 4 Power's Agreement: West Berliner's could visit East Berlin which stopped the conflict over Berlin and meant there was more money going into the East's economy
48 of 84
85% of families owned a TV. 60-90% of these watched Western programmes.
49 of 84
GDR received over DM 585 million in credits or loans from the FRG
50 of 84
The Basic Treaty: Both acknowledge the existence of the other as a separate state
51 of 84
Oil Crisis: the lack of oil affected the GDR who had a lack of natural resources and was reliant on oil for energy
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Children have complusory militray training
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GDR joins the UN - this gave them greater international recognition
54 of 84
Helsinki Accords: agreed to improving human rights. Signed by both Honekcer and Brezhnev, but neither kept to these rules.
August 1975
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The Treaty of Friendship: signed between the USSR and the GDR. Showed that the GDR were loyal to both the west and the USSR.
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75% of people felt there was greater social security in the GDR than there was in the FRG
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Pastor Brusewitz sets himself on fire to protest against Church-State co-operation
18th August 1976
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GDR had fewer hospital beds than the FRG - 107.5 beds compared to 118.8 beds
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Concordat: Honecker met with Church leaders to discuss a formal agreement between the Chruch and State. He allowed them to build new religious centres and allowed them more media time.
March 1978
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Huge overspending on soical welfare, immense shortages, huge queues for the basics and the quality was often extremely poor, especially whne it came to housing.
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FYP: aimed to reduce imports and increase exports, speed up technological and scientific advances while reducing domestic energy consumption
62 of 84
Honecker prevented from visiting the FRG by the USSR
63 of 84
The GDR receives a loan of DM 1 billion from the FRG
64 of 84
Another loan from the FRG - DM 950 million
65 of 84
The USSR accounted for 29 to 34% of the GDR's foreign trade
66 of 84
11th SED Congress - Having inititaed Glasnost and Perestroika, Gorby suggests that the GDR adopt such policies
April 1986
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7 million free meals provided for workers in communal canteens
68 of 84
Honecker visits the FRG
Sept 1987
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Peace groups become more active
70 of 84
Elections were held
May 1989
71 of 84
Sinatra Doctrine: Gorby announces that the Brezhnev Doctrine is dead, meaning that the satellite states could no longer rely on the USSR to intervene with their problems
July 1989
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Hungary opens its borders with Austria
Sept 1989
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HUge demonstrations in Leipzig - St Nicholas Church had regualr Monday protests
Oct 1989
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Honecker resigns and is replaced by Krenz
17th Oct 1989
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Schabowski makes error, the gates were opened at 11:30pm
9th Nov 1989
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SED falling apart - Mielke and various other former Ministers resign while lower rank members lost confidence and direction
13th Nov 1989
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Krenz resigns
4th Dec 1989
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SED reinvents itself - the position of General Secretary is abolished, as well as the Politburo and the Central Committee. They rename themselves the SED-PDS.
9th Dec 1989
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First Free Elections int he GDR. SED renamed Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) in Feb. The CDU win the elections.
18th March 1990
80 of 84
Treaty on currency union
18th May 1990
81 of 84
Final Settlement - signed in Moscow, it allowed the reunification to go ahead
12th Sept 1990
82 of 84
Four Power status in Berlin was ended
2nd Oct 1990
83 of 84
Germany is formally reunified
3rd Oct 1990
84 of 84

Other cards in this set

Card 2




Education offered to the working class. In this year only 3% of University students were working class, but this increased to 58% by 1950.

Card 3


June 1945


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


September 1945


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the back of card 5
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