Revision Pack, entire course. AQA History, Defeat to Unity Germany 1945-91

Just a revision pack that I made myself before the exam, the entire course is there so it is just a condensed and summarised version of the text book. 

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




History ­ Germany 1945-91
The War Legacy ­ Facts & Figures:

The war had brought death, misery and physical destruction throughout the nation.
After the surrender 8th May 1945 the country was left in chaos, shock and disarray.
Cities such as Hamburg, Cologne,…

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




Only took place to reaffirm the disagreements between the allies.
Agreed $20 billion should be the reparation figure, but no agreement on how to extract it.
Eventually decided each power should extract it from their own zone ­ Russia awarded 10%
from Britain…

Page 3

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




In the West there were four political parties elected in fair, free elections: SPD, KPD, LDP and
CDU/CSU. The local governments were elected by the people so therefore democratisation was A
SUCCESS IN THE WEST.

HOWEVER, Ulbricht, `It must appear democratic but the…

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




Favoured by the occupying powers as a conciliator. In 1948 elected president of
Parliamentary council.

Economy in the East: 1945-47:

Faced less war damage and only 15% loss of productive capacity compared to 21% in the
West, but Soviet initial policy was to…

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




United to allow for a more efficient joint economic administration. 6 boards to manage:
Economics; food and agriculture; transport; communications; civil service; & finance.
British & Americans determined to avoid Soviet & French charges that they were forming a
political unification, and set…

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




Russians felt differently: Would still prefer weak demilitarised and united Germany. Didn't
want a strong industrialised USA friendly Germany. West rejected USSR plans becase it risked
communism spreading. West German leaders saw an advantage in Westernisation.

Creation of the FRG: 1st July the…

Page 7

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




Major task = reconstruction of the FRG. April 1950 Construction law gave generous grants
which provided 4 million new `dwellings' by 1957.
Refugees and expellees gradually intergrated into society by government programs.
Arranged for compensation to be given to those effected by Nazi…

Page 8

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




Could be argued he had no choice ­ denazification not possible.
E.g. Hans Globke & Herbert Blankenhorn both ex-Nazi became Adenauer's advisors.
Amnesties granted, people went back to ordinary lives and many crimes not investigated.
1951 Reinstatement ACT allowed for 40-80% civil servants…

Page 9

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




Stalin was upset and din't want the FRG to be rearmed. He ut forward plans to reunify
Germany as a neutral country, allowing free elections and whatever the government
wanted.
Went even further to say that Germany wouldn't have to pay reparations and…

Page 10

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend




Both the FRG and GDR claimed they were the only true state representing the whole of
Germany and the other was illegitimate. The difference was the FRG was recognised by
nearly all UN members and only the Eastern Bloc recognised the GDR.
1955…

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