Revision Pack, entire course. AQA History, Defeat to Unity Germany 1945-91

Just a revision pack that I made myself before the exam, the entire course is there so it is just a condensed and summarised version of the text book. 

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
History ­ Germany 1945-91
The War Legacy ­ Facts & Figures:
The war had brought death, misery and physical destruction throughout the nation.
After the surrender 8th May 1945 the country was left in chaos, shock and disarray.
Cities such as Hamburg, Cologne, Dusseldorf & Dresden, once so proud ­ turned to rubble.
Around 6 .5 million Germans killed/unaccounted for, including civilians. Half a million had
been perishing the burning cities in the East, and short by advancing Soviet troops.
Around 90,000 woman raped in Berlin from 2nd - 7th May. 150,000 -200,000 `Russian
Babies; to be born in the East after the rape.
20,000,000 Germans forced to live in cellars. 53,000 children parentless in Berlin alone.
June 1945 in the US zone, the average calorie intake per day was 860. In 1940 it was 2,445.
Berlin July 1945, there were 66 deaths to every 100 live births.
Robery Murphy, US political advisor said 10 people a day died at Lehrer Railway station.
December 1945 1,023 cases of typhoid and 2,193cases of diphtheria in British zone alone!
Huge numbers of refugees fleeing the Red Army in the East swamping Germany.
Yalta Conference: February 1945: Stalin, Churchill & Roosevelt:
Approved plans for the occupation and administration of Post-War Germany.
Britain, America, and USSR present, agreed France would also have a zone.
East Prussia given to Russia, Rivers Oder and Neisse given to Poland.
British Zone: Population ­ 22.3 million; Industry ­ Ruhr 87% of Germany's coal production and
70% steel; Agriculture ­ dependent on imports.
Soviet Zone: Population ­ 17.3 million; Industry ­ mainly rural but industrial towns of Saxony
and Thuringia, imported coal from the Ruhr; Agriculture ­ good, especially in the North.
American Zone: Population ­ 17.2 million; Industry ­ modern manufacturing in Hessen and
Wurttemberg but dependent on Ruhr; Agriculture was good.
French Zone: Population ­ 15.9 million; Industry ­ Saar coalfields, timber from the Black
Forest; Agriculture ­ some.
The powers agreed on the 4 D's as the way forward: Demilitarisation, Decentralisation,
Denazification, and Democratisation.
The Nuremberg Trials: 20th November 1945 ­ 1st October 1946:
The 1st trail lasted for 218 days ­ the prisoners were tried on Four Counts:
- Crimes against Peace (instigating wars of aggression).
- War Crimes (ill-treatment of civilians and prisoners of war).
- Crimes against Humanity (extremes of brutality against whole groups of nations).
- Conspiracy (involvement in a plan to commit any of the above).
Acquitted: 3 including Von Papen; Death Sentence: 12 including Herman Goring; Life
sentences: 3 including Rudolf Hess; Shorter sentences: (10-20 years) 4 including Dontz.
Potsdam Conference, August 1945: Stalin, Atlee, Truman:
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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
Only took place to reaffirm the disagreements between the allies.
Agreed $20 billion should be the reparation figure, but no agreement on how to extract it.
Eventually decided each power should extract it from their own zone ­ Russia awarded 10%
from Britain & USA zone + 15% in exchange for food. 4 separate economic unit.
The 4 D's ­ Successes and Failures:
All allies agreed to demilitarise Germany.…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
In the West there were four political parties elected in fair, free elections: SPD, KPD, LDP and
CDU/CSU. The local governments were elected by the people so therefore democratisation was A
HOWEVER, Ulbricht, `It must appear democratic but the strings must be in our hands." Not democratic
in the East. Western first past the post failed and PR remained.…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
Favoured by the occupying powers as a conciliator. In 1948 elected president of
Parliamentary council.
Economy in the East: 1945-47:
Faced less war damage and only 15% loss of productive capacity compared to 21% in the
West, but Soviet initial policy was to take maximum reparation in industry.
Took occupational costs from the zone and dismantled productive capacity that remained.
This is evidence the Soviets weren't expecting the occupation and division to last.…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
United to allow for a more efficient joint economic administration. 6 boards to manage:
Economics; food and agriculture; transport; communications; civil service; & finance.
British & Americans determined to avoid Soviet & French charges that they were forming a
political unification, and set up the separate board's headquarters in 4 different cities.
However, as the board members were elected by Western political parties, it is difficult to
pretend that a political unit wasn't the plan.…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
Russians felt differently: Would still prefer weak demilitarised and united Germany. Didn't
want a strong industrialised USA friendly Germany. West rejected USSR plans becase it risked
communism spreading. West German leaders saw an advantage in Westernisation.
Creation of the FRG: 1st July the formation of a Federal Government announced for the West.
The leaders of the West German Lander were asked to draw up a "Basic law".…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
Major task = reconstruction of the FRG. April 1950 Construction law gave generous grants
which provided 4 million new `dwellings' by 1957.
Refugees and expellees gradually intergrated into society by government programs.
Arranged for compensation to be given to those effected by Nazi War Crimes.
1953 Equalisation of Burdens Act offered compensation to victims of bombings.…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
Could be argued he had no choice ­ denazification not possible.
E.g. Hans Globke & Herbert Blankenhorn both ex-Nazi became Adenauer's advisors.
Amnesties granted, people went back to ordinary lives and many crimes not investigated.
1951 Reinstatement ACT allowed for 40-80% civil servants to be ex-NSDAP (Nazi).
Businesses allowed to use money gained under the Nazi's to expand the economy.…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
Stalin was upset and din't want the FRG to be rearmed. He ut forward plans to reunify
Germany as a neutral country, allowing free elections and whatever the government
Went even further to say that Germany wouldn't have to pay reparations and could have a
small army.
Was Stalin Genuine? Some argue it was a propaganda exercise to undermine FRGs progress
Some suggest Adenauer refused because SPD's Rolf Steinger & Willy Loth would dominate.…read more

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May 2011 History: Germany 1945-91 Harry Townsend
Both the FRG and GDR claimed they were the only true state representing the whole of
Germany and the other was illegitimate. The difference was the FRG was recognised by
nearly all UN members and only the Eastern Bloc recognised the GDR.
1955 ­ GDR claimed to be a second German state that should be recognised alongside the
FRG.…read more


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