GCSE PE PAPER 1

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functions of the skeletal system
support , protects, movement, shape and attachment for muscles, mineral storage & blood cell production
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support
keeps us upright and holds the body in places
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protects
keeps our vital organs safe
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movement
acts as an anchor for muscles to pull against
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shape & attachement
for muscles
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mineral storage
bones store mineral i.e. calcium
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blood cell production
in the marrow of long bones and ribs, they produce white & red blood cells
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example of skeletal system function
the cranium protects the brain when rugby tackling. The patella gives movement to the legs whilst kicking a ball
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joints
where 2 or more bones meet
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joints 2
to creates movement our skeletal system works with our muscular system to allow us to move
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joints 3
bones cant bend but muscles pull on bones to create movement
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shapes
shape and type of bone determine the movement
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short bones
enable us to create short fine controlled movements
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long bones
enbale us to create gross motor movements
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irregular bones
enable slight movements to occur
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example of short bones used
in badminton when serving
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example of long bones used
in running when moving the legs
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example of irregular bones used
in pole vaulting when bending your back over the bar
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flat bones
protect vital organs
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example of flat bone used
in rugbyb the cranium protects the brain from the impact of being tackled
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joints and movements
muscles must be attached to the skeletonso when they contractm, our limbs move and we can run, kick, walk and throw
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musculo-skeletal system
out skeletal system and muscular system working together
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tendons
muscles are attached by tendons
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movement of the skeleton
occurs when the muscles contract and pull on the bone
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movement in the shoulder
deltoid, trapezius, rotar cuffs, bicep, tricep, pectorals, latissimus dorsi
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movement in the elbow
bicep, tricep
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movement in the hip
glutes, hip flexors
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movement in the knee
quadriceps, hamstring group
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movement in the ankle
tibilais anterior, gastrocenemius
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muscles and movment
one muscles pulls (contracts) whilst the other relaxes
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prime mover (agonist)
muscle that pulls
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antagonist
muscle that relaxes
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antagonistic pairs
a muscles that pulls when the other relaxes
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sport specific skills in the tricep and bicep
create movement at the elbow i.e. throwing a ball
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sport specific skills in the hip flexors and glutes
work at the hip to create movement when we walk and run
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sport specific skills in the hamstring group and quadricep group
act at the knee to create movement used when kicking a ball or when we run
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sport specific skills in the tibialis anterior and gastrocenemius
work at the ankle to create movement of pinting our toes up and down
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synovial joint
common joint in the body, known as a "freely movable joint"
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synovial joint location
shoulder, elbow, hip, knee & ankle
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synovial membrane
lining of the joint, secretes fluid
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synovial fluid
lubricates and stops bones rubbing
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joint capsule
tissue that stops fluid escaping to reduce friction between the bone and tendon
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cartilage
tough flexible tissue acts as a shock absorber
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ligaments
bands of elastic fibre which attaches bone to bone
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different synovial joints
allow different movements
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ball and socket joint
can move away, back and rotate in the body. most movable joint in the body. e.g. hip, shoulder
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hinge joint
moves in one direction, towards and away from the body, e.g. elbow, knee
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flexion
decreasing of an angle at a joint e.g. releasing a javelin
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extension
increasing of angle at a joint
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abduction
movement of a bone r limb away from the midline of the body e.g. start jump
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adduction
movement of a bone or limb towards the midline of the body e.g. kicking a ball
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rotation
a circular movement around a joint e.g. volley ball spike
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plantar flexion
movement at the ankle which points the toes & increases the angle at the ankle only
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dorsiflexion
movement at the ankle joint that flexes the foot upwards and decreases rthe angle at the ankle e.g. weight lifting
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isotonic contraction
contraction resulting in limb movement e.g. upwards bicep curl
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concentric contraction
shortens whilst contracting
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eccentric contraction
lengthens whilst contracting, slowing down a movement e.g. tricep downwards
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function of leavers
overcome resistance, increase the speed, ridgid structures such as bone that roates on an axis
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fulcrum (the joint)
the point around which the lever rotates
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load (what you want to move)
force applied by leaver system
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effort (supplied by muscles)
force applied by the user of the leaver system
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first class leaver
L F E e.g. nodding, rare in human body
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second class leaver
F L E e.g. ballet dancer, load can be moved with low effort
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third class leaver
F E L e.g. basketball shot, can produce large range of movement or speed at low effort, ineffective in ability to move heavy weights
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Leaver flow chart
is the joint in question the neck or extension at the elbow? yes = first class leaver no = does the action involve the ankle joint? yes = second class leaver no = third class leaver
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resistance arm (load)
distance between the fulcrum and resistance
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effort arm (effort)
distnace between the fulcrum and effort
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mechanical advantage equation
mechanical advantage = effort arm / load arm
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mechanical advantage
have a larger effort arms, allows heavy loads to move a short distnace with small effort, slow and has limited movement, second class leaver
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mechanical disadvantage
have a larger load arm, allows for great speed and a range of movement, cannot move a heavy load, third class leaver
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majority of joints in the body are...
3rd class leavers, short effort arm - long load arm = move quickly over a large rsnge of movement
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plane
an imaginary line that splits the body into 2 and depicts the direction of movement
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axis
an imaginary straight line through the body around which it rotates
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sagittal plane (transverse axis)
splits the body into 2 e.g. walking
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frontal plane (sagittal axis)
divides body intofront and back e.g. cartwheel
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transverse plane (longitudinal axis)
divides body into front and bottom e.g. hammar throw
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sagittal axis (frontal plane)
creates abduction and adduction e.g. cartwheel
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longitudinal axis (transverse plane)
creates flexion, dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, rotation e.g. hammar throw
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transverse axis (sagittal plane)
creates flexion and extension e.g. walking
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respiratory system
we get O2
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respiratory system 2
we produce energy to enable activity
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respiratory system 3
we get rid of CO2 (watse product) produced inmuscles during exercise
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respiratory system 4
when we inhale O2 entres through our mouth or nose
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respiratory system 5
O2 travels through our trachea and connects to the lungs
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respiratory system 6
O2 passes through the bronchi & bronchioles and into the alveoli where gaseous exchange takes place
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gaseous exchange
oxygen that has been breathed in passes through the alveoli and into the red blood cells into the ccapillaries
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gaseous exchange 2
in the capillaries oxygen combines with haemoglobin (protein found in blood cells) to for oxyhaemoglobin and is carried arund the body
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gaseous exchange 3
at the same time haemoglobin carries carbon dioxide from the body to the capillaries
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gaseous exchange 4
the carbon dioxide in the capillaries passes through the alveoli and is breathed out
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haemoglobin
found in red blood cells that transports O2 and CO2 around the body
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oxyhaemoglobin
a chemical formed when haemoglobin bonds to oxygen
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arteries
thick muscular walls, small internal diameter, carries oxygenated blood away from the heart quickly, high blood pressure, pulse can be located in arteries
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veins
thinner walls, larger internal diameter, low blood pressure, carries deoxygentaed blood back to the heart, contains valves that open due to pressure of blood and then close to prevent backflow
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capillaries
microscopic blood vessels, links arteries to veins, thin walls to allow gaseous exchange, deoxygenated blood becomes oxygentaged blood in capillaries
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aerobic respiration equation
aerboic respiration = pressence of air / oxygen
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anarobic respiration equation
anarobic respiration = lack of air / oxygen
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vasodilation and vasoconstriction
when we redirect blood, involves changes in the internal diameter of the arteries
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vasodilation
internal diameter widens, allows increased blood volume to flow through, arteries dilate during exercise so more blood is delivered to the active area, increasing O2
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vasoconstriction
internal diameter narrows, restricts blood volume travelling through, arteries constrict during exercise so less blood is delivered to inactive areas e.g. digestive system
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vascular shunting
the process of redistributing blood
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key points about the heart
musular organ (size of fist)
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key points about the heart 2
pumps blood around the body
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key points about the heart 3
divided into 4 chambers
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key points about the heart 4
atria collect blood from veins
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key points about the heart 5
ventricles pump blood through arteries
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key points about the heart 6
right side of heart - deoxygentaed blood to lungs to be oxsidised
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key points about the heart 7
oxygentaed blood from lungs back to left hand side of heart to be pumped to body
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key points about the heart 8
provides oxygen and nutirents to body tissue
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the cardiac cycle
vales found in pulmonary artery and aorta are found in the semi-lunar valve and prevent back flow
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septum
divides left and right side of heart
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bicuspid
between left atrium and ventricle, prevents blood flowing back into left atrium
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tricuspid
between right atrium and venticle, prevents blood flow in the right atrium
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pulmonary circulation
right side of the heart holds deoxygented blood, comes from the body and goes to the lungs
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systemic circulation
left side of the heart holds oxygenated blood, comes from the lungs and goes to the body
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blood flow around the body
de-oxygentaed blood returns from the body via the vena cava and entres the right atrium
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blood flow around the body 2
blood moves through a valve into the right ventricle
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blood flow around the body 3
blood moves through a second valve and leaves the heart via the pulmonary artery heading towards the lungs
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blood flow around the body 4
oxygenated blood returns to theheart from the lungs via the pulonary veins and enters the left atrium
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blood flow around the body 5
blood moves through a valve and leaves the heart via the aorta heading towards the body
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blood flow around the body 6
the heart is refereed to as a double pump because the right side pumps blood to the lungs to collect oxygen and then the left side pumps blood to the body to deliver the oxygen it collected from the lungs and remove CO2 produced by the muscles
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diastole
relaxion phase of cardiac cycle
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systole
contraction phase of cardiac cycle
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cardiac output
volume of blood the heart can pump out or delivered to body
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heart rate
number of beats per minute
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stroke volume
volume of blood leaving heart
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if theres an increase in heart rate
this increases cardiac output, by increasing volume of blood released in system
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cardiac diastole
atria fill with blood
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cardiac diastole 2
blood returns from the body, into the right atrium via the vena cava, the lungs into the left atrium via the pulmonary vein
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cardiac diastole 3
ventricles fill with blood
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cardiac diastole 4
semi-lunar valve stays shut
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cardiac diastole 5
tricuspid & bicuspid valves are open
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atria systole and ventricle diastole
atria contract frocing blood into ventricles
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atria systole and ventricle diastole 2
ventricles continue to go through diastole
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atria systole and ventricle diastole 3
as they fill pressure increases and shut the tricuspid and bicuspid valves
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atria systole and ventricle diastole 4
pressure increases in the venticles
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atrial distole and ventricular systole
pressure in the ventricles increases and force open the semi lunar valve
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atrial distole and ventricular systole 2
ventricles contract, forcing blood out of the heart; right ventricles - blood exists thrugh aorta to the body
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atrial distole and ventricular systole 3
semi lunar valve shut ans cyle begina again
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atrial distole and ventricular systole 4
atria are relaxed and filling with blood
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anticipatory rise
HR increases usually before activity because of expectation of exercise
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cardiac output (Q) equation
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume Q = HR x SV
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mechanics of breathing
as we breath in (inhale) our chest changes sze & shape
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mechanics of breathing 2
as we breathe in, our diaphragm moves down
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mechanics of breathing 3
intercostal muscles (attached to ribs) contract, raising the ribs up and pushing out the sternum
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mechanics of breathing 4
this makes our chest cavity bigger
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mechanics of breathing 5
this reduced air pressure inside the cavity and causes air to be sucked into the lungs
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mechanics of breathing 6
as we breathe out, our diaphragm becomes a dome shape
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mechanics of breathing 7
intercostal muscles relax, dropping the ribs and lowering the sternum. this makes the chest cavity smaller
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mechanics of breathing 8
this increases air pressure inside the cavity and causes air to be pushed out the lungs
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what happens during mechanics of breathing
lungs expand and contract when breathing during exercise so we get O2 to wokring muscles
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what happens during mechanics of breathing 2
chainging air pressure to cause inhalation and exhalation
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what happens during mechanics of breathing 3
during exercise we try to get rid of CO2 &other poisoness gasses
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other muscles involved in breathing
pectorals and sternocleidomastoid
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other muscles involved in breathing 2
paired muscles in side of neck which aid in raising the sternum up
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other muscles involved in breathing 3
abdominals pull the ribs down quickly,forcing air out
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spirometer trace
measures air capacity of lungs
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tidal volume
the amount of air that entes the lungs during normal inspiration at rest.
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expiratory reserve volume
amount of extra air expired (above tidal volume) during a forceful of breath out
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inspiratory reserve volume
amount of extra air inhaled (above tidal volume) during a deep breath
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residual volume
amount of air left in the lungs following a maximal exhalation
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vital capacity
the most air you can exhale after taking a deep breath
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lung volume during exercise
whilst running lung volume will change
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breathing rate chnage during exercise
increases
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tidal volume at exercise
increases
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inspiratory reserve volume at exercise
decreases
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expiratory reserve volume at exercise
decreases
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residual volume at exercise
no change
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aerobic exercise
exercise that occurs in the presence of oxygen
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when we work aerobically
energy needed by muscles comes from the carbohydrates, this is converted into glucose (simple sugars) and O2
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when energy is being used
it creates by products; CO2 and H2O, when we sweat this water is released
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respiration equation
glucose + oxygen -> energy + carbon dioxide + water
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people who work aerobically
can work for longer periods of time at a low to moderate intensity
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intensity
amount of energy we need to complete an activityy
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anaerobic exercise
exercise that occurs in the absence of oxygen
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performers who work anaerobically
work at a high intensity for short periods of time
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heart & lungs cant supply enough blood
therefore oxygen to working muscles
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glucose
converted into energy without oxygen
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anaerobic energy equation
glucose -> energy -> lactic acid
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when working anaerobically we produce
lactic acid
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as lactic acid builds up muscles become..
painful, fatigued, unable to continue efficiently this results int eh body only being able to work for short periods of time (60s)
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EPOC
Excess Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption
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what is EPOC
the amount of oxygen needed to recover after anaerobic exercise, the performer is paying an oxygen debt
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we get this by...
increasing our breathing rate, by breathing deeper
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EPOC replemishes the body with oxygen so...
this enables the body to convert lactic acid (produced in exercise) into glucose, CO2 & H2O
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how do we pay back an oxygen debt?
we maintain an increased breathing rate
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how long does it take to remove lactic acid
7 hours produced in HITT (high intensity interval training)
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immediate effects of exercise
we feel this as soon as we exercise
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immediate effects of exercise - hotter
tempertaure increase
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immediate effects of exercise - sweat and we become red in the face
occurs as the body regulates temperature
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immediate effects of exercise - breath deeper more frequent
body delivering oxygen to muscles
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immediate effects of exercise - heart rate increases
heart works harder to get oxygen to wokring muscles
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short term effects of exercise
we feels this 24/36 hours after exercise
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short term effects of exercise - feel fatigued
we cannot maintain performance
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short term effects of exercise - light headed
we have to drink and stop performance
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short term effects of exercise - muscles will ache
harder to perform/repeat
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short term effects of exercise - muscles cramp
hydration
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short term effects of exercise - nausea
stop performance
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short term effects of exercise - DOMS
massage, bath, manipulate diet
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long term effects of exercise
weight loss
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long term effects of exercise
stronger/bigger heart (cardiac hypertrophy)
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long term effects of exercise
flexiability
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long term effects of exercise
body shape changes, more exercise keeps body weight down
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long term effects of exercise
improvements in fitness components: strength, speed & power
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long term effects of exercise
fitness components will change/depend what you do
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long term effects of exercise
stamina will increase = exercise longer
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long term effects of exercise
muscles increase in size = stronger (hypertrophy)
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BRADYCARDIA
resting heart rate lowers
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cool down
activity to maintain an elevent heart and breathing rate
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

keeps us upright and holds the body in places

Back

support

Card 3

Front

keeps our vital organs safe

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

acts as an anchor for muscles to pull against

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

for muscles

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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