GCSE History: Crime - Roman to Medieval Key Word Checklist

Provincial Governor
Roman governor who hears serious cases.
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Patriarchy
Male dominated society.
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Hierarchy
Set up society - one person at the top, lower classes/slaves at the bottom.
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Blood Feuds
Crimes between different families that are dealt with by the families.
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Hue and Cry
The process of trying to find a criminal, or else the whole tithing would have to pay a fine to the victim's family.
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Tithings
A group of 10 men who would be responsible for catching criminals.
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Synod of Whitby, 664AD
This is the event that made England a Christian country.
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Wergeld
Compensation given to a victim's family for the victim's death.
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Botgeld
Compensation given to a victim who suffered injuries.
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Trial by Ordeal
When guilt/innocence is decided by God e.g. walking five paces holding a hot iron rod. If blister - guilty, heal - innocent.
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Trial by Community
When local people are asked to decide on guilt or innocence.
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Murdrum Fine
A fine paid by the hundred if a Norman is found dead, but the killer is not found.
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Trial by Combat
The accuser and the accused fight. Whoever wins, God has said is innocent.
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Forest Laws
Laws to protect the Royal Forest for hunting by the king.
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King's Mund
The idea that the area around where you live should be free from crime/at peace - the King is in overall charge of this.
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Benefit of Clergy
It was assumed that only priests could read and write. The accused would pretend to be a priest by learning a passage from a Bible. They would then be heard in a Church Court, which means they would escape the death penalty.
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Right of Sanctuary
If a criminal went to a Church to confess their crime, they would be allowed to leave the hundred and escape the death penalty.
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Constitution of Clarendon, 1164AD
A set of laws passed by Henry II e.g. introducing trial by jury
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Heresy
Crime against the agreed religion of the monarch and the church. Death.
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Twelve Tablets
Roman Laws that were displayed on huge pieces of copper or stone in all major towns in the Roman Empire.
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Church Courts
Introduced on the Normans to keep a check on moral behaviour. Any church people or ordinary people were fined for moral crime e.g. Adultery.
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Wars of the Roses
Long periods of warfare in England during the 14th century. Caused massive upheaval and made the authorities fear rebellion.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Male dominated society.

Back

Patriarchy

Card 3

Front

Set up society - one person at the top, lower classes/slaves at the bottom.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Crimes between different families that are dealt with by the families.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The process of trying to find a criminal, or else the whole tithing would have to pay a fine to the victim's family.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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