Gardner and Gardner flashcards.

  • Created by: bananaaar
  • Created on: 27-03-14 17:03
First Context?
'Can only Humans Use language' has been a question examined by scientists since the 1960's. Most people believed difference between humans and animals was language, but some believed animals were capable of language.
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2nd Context?
Premack (1966) believed chimps were capable. Taught Sarah the chimp language by using coloured shapes to represent words. She knew 130 signs and could make sentences of up to 8 signs (e.g. Sarah+give+apple)
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3rd Context?
Argued that only humans have language as they have a unique part of brain called a Language Acquisition Device (LAD), as animals don't have one, they shouldn't be able to acquire language.
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4th context?
Researchers looked at the way bees perform a 'waggle dance' to communicate to the hive where pollen is. Some argue this is language, but some say its communication which is not necessarily language.
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Gardner's aim 1?
Find out if they could teach a chimp to communicate using human language, specifically ASL
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Aim 2?
To teach a chimp ASL because chimps are good with their hands, therefore could cope easily with the mechanics of signing.
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Gardners research method?
Case study
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Gardners sample?
Opportunist, consisting of one chimp caught in the wild from africa, taken to US airforce and then adopted at about 8-14 months and brought to Washoe County.
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Research involved 1?
Placing washoe in human environment similar to a deaf child
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Research method 2?
Teaching Washoe ASL (as it built on her natural hand gestures)
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Research method 3?
Enabling washoe to build up close relationships with humans who all used ASL as well - there was always a human whilst she was awake. Nobody spoke around Washoe.
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Research Method 4?
Encouraging Washoe to interact with humans using games, play, fun etc.
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How were signs recorded?
Learned signs at different ages. i.e. used signs correctly and spontaneously on 15 consecutive days, confirmed by 3 observers.
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Training methods to teach washoe?
1. Imitation - i.e. getting her to copy a sign such as 'dog'. 2. Babbling - when W vaguely signed something, it was signed back to her correctly. 3. Operant conditioning - i.e. tickling W when she used correct sign. 4. Direct tuition, forming W hands
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Ethical issues addressed by Gardners?
Ensured Washoe was cared for and encouraged in the way a young child would be.
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How many signs did W know after 7 months?
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How many signs did W know after 14 months?
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How many signs did W know after 21 months?
30 signs.
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What was first sign learnt?
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Order of next learnt words?
'more' 'up' 'sweet' 'open' and 'tickle' (in that order)
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How many ways did W acquire language?
3 (differentiation, transfer and combinations.)
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Explain differentiation?
Discriminating between 2 signs, e.g. distinguishing smell from flower and using each sign appropriately in context.
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Explain Transfer?
Generalising from one particular object to a general class of objects e.g. using the flower sign for different types of flower, and key sign for various types of key.
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Explain Combinations?
Once W had about 8 signs she combined them to make phrases like 'go sweet' (Raspberry picking) and 'listen dog' when a dog was barking.
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Gardners conclusion 1?
It is possible to teach a chimp basic human communication in the form of ASL.
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Gardner conclusion 2?
It was difficult to say whether W had acquired language as it went against the spirit of their research.
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conclusion 3?
Washoe's ability to transfer signs suggested that more could be accomplished with further phases of the project, i.e. using other chimps. Gardners did this in later work with 4 other chimps mona, Dar, Tatu and Loulis had same results as Washoe.
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Problematic - strong as it was retested with other chimps, however case studies are not reliable as they are not scientific.
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Internal Validity
Weak as we don't know if Washoe really understood language or whether it was a clever Hans effect. Most say she didn't understand TST not true picture.
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Weak - only one chimp so can't compare or generalise. Also bears no relevance to human psychology.
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Problematic - Little quantitative (7 months, 4 signs) so it was difficult to make comparisons. However lots of qualitative so you get a detailed account of W's behaviour.
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Problematic - strong as she was properly cared for like a child, however she was taken away from her natural habitat at a young age... TST breaks ethical guidelines.
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Alternative Evidence people?
Premack, Terrace, Noam Chomsky.
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Alternative Evidence 1?
Premack, as they found Sarah had also acquired communication with humans. Both could put together sentences (as can Kanzi, a more recent study). G was more valid as W was taught real ASL, whereas Premack used shapes which humans don't communicate wit
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Alternative Evidence 2?
Terrace taught his chimp Nim Chimpsky ASL and argued they weren't using language. Challenged G as close analysis of Nim & Washoe lead to finding that they were just imitating signs. Findings of different chimps too wide (individual Differences)
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Alternative Evidence 3?
Noam Chomsky argued that only humans can use language as they have an ASL so can't use grammar. Challenges G as he suggested conclusions were wishful thinking. However G is more valid as he used a real chimp - Noam was just theoretical.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


2nd Context?


Premack (1966) believed chimps were capable. Taught Sarah the chimp language by using coloured shapes to represent words. She knew 130 signs and could make sentences of up to 8 signs (e.g. Sarah+give+apple)

Card 3


3rd Context?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


4th context?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Gardner's aim 1?


Preview of the front of card 5
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