Approaches flashcards

The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations
1 of 54
Behaviourist approach
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
2 of 54
Classical conditioning
Learning through association
3 of 54
Operant conditioning
Learning through consequences (reinforcement and punishment)
4 of 54
A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated
5 of 54
Social learning theory
A way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining both the learning theory and cognitive factors
6 of 54
Copying the behaviour of others
7 of 54
When an observer associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model
8 of 54
Imitating the behaviour of a role model
9 of 54
Vicarious reinforcement
Reinforcement which is not directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour
10 of 54
Mediational processes
Cognitive factors that influence learning and come between stimulus and response
11 of 54
Cognitive approach
Approach focused on how our mental processes affect behaviour
12 of 54
Internal mental processes
'Private' operations of the mind that mediate between stimulus and response
13 of 54
A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing, developed from experience
14 of 54
The process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour
15 of 54
Cognitive neuroscience
The scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes
16 of 54
Biological approach
Perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body
17 of 54
They make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes the physical features of an organism
18 of 54
Biological structure
An arrangement or organisation of parts to form an organ, system or living thing
19 of 54
Relating to chemicals in the brain that regulate psychological functioning
20 of 54
The particular set of genes a person possesses
21 of 54
The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment
22 of 54
The changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations
23 of 54
Nervous system
Consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
24 of 54
Central nervous system (CNS)
Consists of the brain and spinal cord and is the origin of all complex commands and decisions
25 of 54
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Sends information to the CNS from the outside world, and transmits messages from the CNS to muscles and glands in the body
26 of 54
Somatic nervous system
Transmits information from receptor cells in the sense organs to the CNS. Also receives information from the CNS that directs muscles to act
27 of 54
Autonomic nervous system
Transmits information to and from internal body organs
28 of 54
Endocrine system
Instructs glands to release hormones directly into the bloodstream
29 of 54
An organ in the body that synthesises substances such as hormones
30 of 54
Chemical substances that circulate in the bloodstream and only affect target organs
31 of 54
Fight or flight response
The way an animal responds when stressed
32 of 54
A hormone produced by the adrenal glands which is part of the human body's immediate stress response system
33 of 54
Nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals
34 of 54
Sensory neurons
Carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. Long dendrites and short axons
35 of 54
Relay neurons
Connect sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons. Short dendrites and short axons
36 of 54
Motor neurons
Connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. Short dendrites and long axons
37 of 54
Synaptic transmission
Process by which neighbouring neurons communicate with each other by sending chemical messages across the gap that separates them
38 of 54
Brain chemicals released from synaptic vesicles that relay signals across the synapse from one neuron to another
39 of 54
Where a neurotransmitter increases the positive charge of the postsynaptic neuron
40 of 54
Where are neurotransmitter increases the negative charge of the postsynaptic neuron
41 of 54
Psychodynamic approach
Perspective that describes the different forces that operate on the mind and direct human behaviour and experience
42 of 54
The unconscious
The part of the mind that we're unaware of but which continues to direct much of our behaviour
43 of 54
Entirely unconscious, the id is made up of selfish aggressive instincts that demand immediate gratification
44 of 54
The 'reality check' that balances the conflicting demands of the id and the superego
45 of 54
The moralistic part of our personality which represents the ideal self
46 of 54
Defence mechanisms
Unconscious strategies that the ego uses to manage the conflict between the id and the superego
47 of 54
Psychosexual stages
First developmental stages that all children pass through. At each stage there is a different conflict, the outcome of which determines future development
48 of 54
Humanistic psychology approach
An approach to understanding behaviour that emphasises the importance of subjective experience and each person's capacity for self-determination
49 of 54
Free will
The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological or external forces
50 of 54
The desire to grow psychologically and fulfill one's full potential - becoming what you are capable of
51 of 54
Hierarchy of needs
A five levelled hierarchal sequence in which basic needs must be satisfied before higher psychological needs can be achieved
52 of 54
When the self-concept and ideal self are seen to broadly accord or match
53 of 54
Conditions of worth
When a parents places limits/boundaries on their love of their children
54 of 54

Other cards in this set

Card 2


A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning


Behaviourist approach

Card 3


Learning through association


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Learning through consequences (reinforcement and punishment)


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Approaches resources »