Functionalist explanations of crime and deviance

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 28-09-15 20:04
What do official crime statistics suggest and do Functionalists support this?
That working class, young, often black males from urban areas are most likely to commit crime, -Yes they do accept Functionalist theories,
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What kind of explanation of crime and deviance do they have and what do they focus on as an explanation?
A structural casual explanation-Focusing on the way society is organised, the offender's social background, upbringing or social position,
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What do Functionalists assume as a key concept?
Value consensu-agreement over norms and values (shared culture)
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Does Durkheim believe crime can be functional or dysfunctional?
Both
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Give three reasons why Durkheim believes crime and deviance can be functional?
-To generate socail change, all change begins as deviance from social norms, -Creates social integration, this bonds society together against certain crimes and criminals, -Helps clarify the boundaries of acceptable behaviour
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Why does Durkheim also view crime as dysfunctional?
AS too much crime and deviance can threaten value consensus, social order and social stability. This is because the norms and values that 'unite' society are broken and challenged,
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Why does Durkheim believe crime and deviance is inevitable?
As not everyone is effectively socialised and cultural diversity exists. Therefore, we are not all equally commited to shared norms and values and some individuals will deviate,
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What are Durkheim's two positive views of social control and social order?
-Socialisation -Sanctions
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Why is socialisation a positive view of social control and social order?
Agenices of socialisation instil shared norms and values to create value consensus. This agreement then creates social order and stability.
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Give an example of how socialisation is a positive?
Families and schools instil the values of achievement and respect for authority. Religion instils the value of not commiting adultery,
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Why are sanctions a positive view of social control and order?
Crime and deviance is controlled by negative sanctions/ punishments for deviance e.g. imprisonment and positive snactions/ praise for conformity
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Give an example of how sanctions are positive?
Praise for working hard at school.
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What sociologist has creates the strain theory?
Merton,
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How does he argue the causes of crime?
Cultural and structural causes
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Whar are indviduals socialised to MEET?
Certain shared goals (values) e.g. the 'American Dream',
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What are individuals socialised to FOLLOW?
Approved means (norms) to achieve the goals e.g. doing well at school and working hard in a job,
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What do many societies suffer from and what does this mean?
Anomie-Normlessness so a strain between the goals set by soceity and the law abiding means of achieveing them,
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Describe the types of people who aren't able to achieve socities goals legally and what happens?
-Disadvantaged groups e.g. working class and black people, -They experience blocked opportunities at school so underachieve,
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Give the 5 responses Merton argues peopledo when they experience anomie?
-Innovation, -Conformity, -Ritualism, -Retreatism, -Rebellion,
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Describe the description of the innovation response and examples?
-Individuals who gain wealth by illegitmate means e.g. stealing, drug dealers, car jacking,
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Do innovaters have the means or the goals?
Means-no Goals-Yes
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Describe the description of the confomity response and examples?
Individuals who work hard legitimately to achieve success e.g. middle class-doctors,
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Do conformists have the means or the goals?
Means- Yes Goals- Yes
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Describe the description of the ritualism response and examples?
Individuals who abide by the rules but scale down their goa;s e.g. working class-shop keepers,
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Do ritualists have the means or the goals?
Means- Yes Goals- No
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Describe the description of the retreatism response and examples?
Individuals who drop out of society e.g. alcholics , drug users,
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Do retreatists have the means or the goals?
Means- No Goals- No
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Describe the description of the rebellion response and examples?
Individuals who reject societal goals and means but replace them with their own goals and means
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Do rebellists have the means or goals?
Means and Goals- They don't so replace them with their own- yes and no
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Why did subcultural strain theories arrive?
Out of the weaknesses of Merton's anomie theory-THey attempt to explain the collective nature of crime and deviance through the concept of subcultures,
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What two sets of theorists form subcultural strain theories?
-Cohen, -Cloward and Ohlin,
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How does Cohen argue the causes of crime for supporting Merton?
Structural causes
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What does Cohen agree with Merton about working class youth's opportunities?
He agrees their opportunies are blocked because of their low position in the social class structure (e.g.obtaining poor qualifications becuase of material and cultural deprivation),
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What does Cohen agree with Merton about working class youth;s socialisation?
That they are socialised into the 'American/British Dream'
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Lastly, what does Cohen agree with Merton about working class youth's suffering from what?
Suffering from status frustration because they are unable to achieve mainstream success goals legitimately,
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How does Cohen argue the causes of crime for adding to Merton's arguments?
Cultural causes
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What does Cohen add that soe working class youths reject?
Some reject mainstream norms and values because of the status frustration they feel,
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What does Cohen add mainstream norms and values are replaced with?
Altnernative delinquent subcultural norms and values-A high value is placed on negativistic delinquent acts e.g. arson,
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What is the last thing Cohen adds about delinquent subcultures?
That they provide an alternative means of gaining status and striking back at an unequal society,
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What are Cloward and Ohlin's structural origins?
They accept Cohen;s views on the structural causes of crime and deviance,
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What are Cloward and Ohlin's cultural causes?
Criticise Cohen for failing to recognise the different types of crime that emerge out of 'illegitimate opportunity structure'.
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What do Cloward and Ohlin shaoes subcultural types?
Access to criminal networks,
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What did they propose were the three different subcultures that deviants can join?
-Criminal subcultures, -Conflict subcultures, -Retreatist subcultures,
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What is the criminal subculture?
They have access to criminal networks. They commit material (money making) crimes such as burglary,
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What is the conflict subculture?
They lack access to criminal networks but juveniles live in an area with high population turnover which values gang violence e.g.certain parts of Glasgow
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What is the retreatist subculture?
They lack access to criminal or conflict subcultures, Typical deviancy is alcohol and drug abuse,
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What is an empirical evaluation of Durkheim to support his theories?
Kingsley Davis found that crime does indeed have a positive function. He found that prostitution can have a positive impact on society by acting as a sexual frustration 'safety valve' which in turn keeps the family together.-validity,
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Subcultural theories have gained empirical support from who and what does he say?
Morrison has found that the underclass are faced with blocked opportunities becuase of their position in the social structure. Crime is then committed because of group feelings of resentment and revenge- validity,
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However, give a empirical weakness by Empey on subcultural theories (mainly Cloward and Ohlin?)
Empey is critical of Cloward and Ohlin-He argues that many juveniles belong to more than one type of subculture e.g. drug dealders fall into conflict and criminal subcultures,
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Give another empirical weakness of subcultural theories?
Miller argues that deviant subcultures do not develop as a reaction to anomie, instead they emerge out of working class culture that values goals such as 'toughness' or 'excitement',
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Describe Functionalist theory views of OCS and its disadvantages?
-They too readily accept OCS, -They fail to explain adult white-collar crime and neglect female subcultural delinquency so response isnt adequate,
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For all functionalist theories, what two theorists have criticised them on a theoretical level?
-Labelling theoriests -Criminologists,
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Why do Labelling theorists criticise all functionalist theories?
As they ignore how the amount and distribution of crime is socially constructed, -They argue male, working class, juvenile crime is due to selective law enforcement, labelling and consequent subcultures.-F only offer a partial view,
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Why do criminoligists criticise all functionalist theories?
-They focus on causes of subcultural crime and deviance, -Focus on aesthetic styles of subculture and criticise F subcultural theories for failing to look at the way the media 'demonise' many subcultures and create 'moral panics's-Foffer partial view
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Who has theoretically criticised Durkheim and why?
Left Realists claim Durkheim neglects the victim when focusing on the positive functions of crime. Victims can suffer both physically and psychologicaly and may stay indoors for fear of repeat victimisation-F only offer a partial view,
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Who has theoretically criticised strain theory and why?
Subcultural theories have criticised Merton for individualising deviance. They claim Merton sees deviance as an individual response to Anomie, and therefore doesnt adequately account for the collective nature of crime and deviance- F partial view,
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Who has theoretically criticised subcultural theories and why?
Phenomenologists. matza-Criticises for assuming that membership of delinquent subcultures is permanent. He argues individuals drift in and out of delinquency and therefore C and D is temporary and episodic- F only offer a partial view
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Card 2

Front

What kind of explanation of crime and deviance do they have and what do they focus on as an explanation?

Back

A structural casual explanation-Focusing on the way society is organised, the offender's social background, upbringing or social position,

Card 3

Front

What do Functionalists assume as a key concept?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Does Durkheim believe crime can be functional or dysfunctional?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give three reasons why Durkheim believes crime and deviance can be functional?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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