Fuels and Earth Science

  • Created by: Axraa
  • Created on: 24-09-18 16:30
Crude oil
A fossil fuel, in the liquid state, formed from the remains of microscopic dead plants and animals that lived in the sea. A mixture of hydrocarbons.
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Feedstock
Raw material, a substance used to make other substances
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Finite resource
Something useful that is no longer made of which is being made very slowly
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Fossil fuel
A fuel formed from the dead remains of organisms over million of years. E.g. coal, oil and natural gas
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Hydrocarbon
A compound containing hydrogen and carbon atoms ONLY
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Natural gas
A fossil fuel in the gas state, formed from the remains of microscope dead plants and animals that lived in the sea
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Non-renewable
Something that is being used up faster than it is being formed, so it will run out one day if we keep using it
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Petrochemical
Substance made out of crude oil
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Condense
When a gas turns into a solid
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Evaporate
When a liquid turns in to a gas
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Fraction
A component of a mixture that has been separated by fractional distillation
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Fractional distillation
A method of separating a mixture of liquids with different boiling points into individual components(fractions)
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Fractionating column
Tower in which fractional distillation takes place(apparatus)
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Ignite
To start burning
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Viscosity
How thick or runny the liquid is. Low viscosity is very runny and high viscosity is very thick
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Alkane
A hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between the carbon atoms are single bonds
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General formula
A type of formula that represents the composition of any member of an homologous series
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Homologous series
A family of compounds with similar chemical properties and gradual variation in physical properties. They have the same general formula with successive members differing in their molecular formulae
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Molecular formula
A chemical formula that show the actual number of atoms in each element in a unit of a substance
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Structural formula
A diagram showing information about the positions of the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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Carbon monoxide
A poisonous gas produced from carbon burning without enough oxygen
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Combustion
A chemical reaction in which a compound reacts with oxygen
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Complete combustion
Combustion of hydrocarbons with enough oxygen present to convert all the fuel into carbon dioxide and water
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Haemoglobin
The red, iron-containing pigment found in the red blood cells
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Incomplete combustion
When a substance reacts only partially with oxygen, such as when carbon burns in air producing carbon monoxide and soot (unburnt carbon)
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Oxidation
A reaction in which oxygen is added to a substance
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Red blood cells
A biconcave disc containing a haemoglobin that gives blood its red colour and carries oxygen around the body to the tissues. Also known as an erythrocyte
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Soot
A form of carbon, which is produced as very fine particles when hydrocarbon fuels undergo incomplete combustion
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Toxic
Poisonous
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Acid rain
Rainwater that is more acidic that usual due to air pollution, usually caused by sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
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Impurity
Unwanted substance found mixed into a useful substance
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Raw material, a substance used to make other substances

Back

Feedstock

Card 3

Front

Something useful that is no longer made of which is being made very slowly

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A fuel formed from the dead remains of organisms over million of years. E.g. coal, oil and natural gas

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A compound containing hydrogen and carbon atoms ONLY

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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