Food Tech - Key Words - Principles of Nutrition

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Adipose Tissue
Cells that store energy in the form of fat
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Amino Acids
Simpler units of protein, made up of long chains
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Anaemia
A condition where the body lacks enough healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin
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Antioxidants
Chemicals in food which can prevent or slow down damage to our body which otherwise can lead to diseases such as heart disease and cancers
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Athersclerosis
A build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries, sometimes called 'furring of the arteries'
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Beri Beri
A muscle wasting disease due to lack of vitamin B1 in the diet
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Beta-glucan
A form of soluble fibre
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Blood Sugar
How much glucose is in the blood
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Cholesterol
A fatty substance found in our blood and the food we eat
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Coeliac Disease
A chronic intestinal disorder caused by sensitivity to the protein gliadin contained in the gluten of cereals
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Collagen
Protein in the connective tissue which holds cells together
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Composition
The different parts or substances that make up something
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Coronary Heart Disease
A narrowing of the arteries that supply your heart with oxygen-rich blood, due to the build-up of fatty material within their walls
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Deficeincy
A lack of something that is needed in the diet
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Dehydration
When the body loses more fluid than it takes in
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Digestion
The breaking down of food in the body to obtain nutrientsq
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Dissacharide
A carbohydrate made from two sugar molecules
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Empty Calories
Calories that are present in foods that have very little or no nutritive value
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Extrinsic Sugar
Added sugar
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Fat Soluble Vitamins
These vitamins dissolve in fat
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Fortified Food
A food product in which a nutrient is added to increase its nutritional value
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Free Radicals
Chemiclas in food which can cause us harm. Antioxidants will protect the body from these harmful free radicals
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Free Sugars
Extrinsic sugars not from milk
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Function
What something does, or why it is needed
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Goitre
An enlargement of the thyroid gland seen as a neck swellinh, from insufficient intake of iodine
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Haem Iron
From animal sources
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Haemoglobin
The part of blood that contain iron, carries oxygen through the body, and gives blood its red colour
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High Biological Value
Protein foods containing all the essential amino acids
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Hydrogenation
The process of changing a liquid fat or oil to a solid one at room temperature by the addition of hydrogen
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Hypercalcaemia
An abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
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Insoluble Fibre
Fibre which the body cannot absorb
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Intrinsic Sugar
Natural Sugar
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Iron Deficiency Anaemia
Lack of iron in the body leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells
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Kwashiorkor
A form of malnutrition linked to protein deficiency
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Low Biological Value
Protein foods lacking one or more of the essential amino acids
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Macronutrients
A class of chemical compounds which humans consume in the largest quantities
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Megaloblastic Anaemia
A type of anaemia caused by a lack of vitamin B9
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Metabolism
All the chemical processes in the body, especially those that cause food to be used for energy and growth
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Micronutrients
Required in small quantities to facilitate a range of physiological functions
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Monosaccharide
A simple carbohydrate
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Mycoprotein
A food made from the fungi family which contains all the essential amino acids needed by the body
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Non-haem Iron
From vegetable sources
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Non-Milk Extrinsic Sugars
Added sugar from non-milk sources
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Non-Starch Polysaccharide
Insoluble Fibre
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Nutrient
A substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life
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Nutritional Value
The nutrients in foods and how they impact the body
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Obesity
When a person is carrying around so much extra weight that it is dangerous to their health
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Omega-3
Fatty acids that are important for a healthy heart
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Osteomalacia
Softening of the bones in adults, results in bone pain and muscle weakness
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Osteoporosis
A medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile
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Oxidation
Exposure to oxygen in the air
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Peak Bone Mass
Refers to the largest amount of bone tissure that a person has at any point in life. Most people reach their peak bone mass by the age of 30
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Pellagra
A deficiency disease due to a lack of vitamin B3 in the diet. Causes skin, nerve and mental health problems plus diarrhoea. Often occurs where maize is a staple food
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Pernicious anaemia
A type of anaemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12
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Photosynthesis
The process used by a plant to obtain energy from sunlight. Starch is produced during photosynthesis
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Polysaccharide
A complex carbohydrate
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Rickets
A disease caused by lack of calcium and vitamin D. The bones become soft and weak, leading to bone deformities
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Saturated Fats
Come mostly from animal sources and can be bad for our health
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Scurvy
A disease due to a lack of vitamin C, causes swollen gums and bleeding and can be fatal if left untreated
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Shelf Life
How long a food is fit to consume
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Shortening
A fat that is solid at room temperature
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Soluble Fibre
Fibre which can be absorbed by the body
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Sources
The specific foods that contain certain nutrients
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Spina Bifida
A serious birth abnormality causing a defect of the spine
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Starch
A polysaccharide/complex carbohydrate
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Sugar
A monosaccharide or disaccharide, a simple carbohydrate
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Trans-Fats
Occur naturally in meat and dairy products. Most trans-fat is formed through the industrial process of hydrogenation
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TVP
Textured vegetable protein, made from soya beans
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Unsaturated Fat
A fat that comes from a vegetable source and is good for our health
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Vegan
A person who does not eat or use animal products
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Water Soluble Vitamins
These vitamins dissolve in water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Simpler units of protein, made up of long chains

Back

Amino Acids

Card 3

Front

A condition where the body lacks enough healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Chemicals in food which can prevent or slow down damage to our body which otherwise can lead to diseases such as heart disease and cancers

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries, sometimes called 'furring of the arteries'

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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