AO4 Flashcards


Food Intolerance Symptoms 4.1

Aches + pains in the muscles and joints, pain + swelling (bloating) in the abdomen, nausea (being sick, diarrhoea, constant tiredness + weakness and eczma. 

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Coeliac Disease + Lactose Intolerance 4.1

When people have coeliac disease, their immune system "thinks" that the gluten will damage the body, so the immune system sends out antibodies to destroy the gluten. People with coeliac disease must avoid any food or drink that contains gluten. Some examples include wheat, barley, oats and rye. People with a lactose intolerant condition cannot digest food normally, so the bacteria in the large intestine have to break it down. The bacteria produce a lot of gas and this can cause bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea. Lactose is the natural sugar that's found in milk and milk products. A lactose intolerant condition can develop at any age.

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Sources Of Food Poisoning + Bacteria 4.1

Sources of food poisoning bacteria are people, sewage, raw food, insects, rodents, soil, dust, waste, animals, birds and contaminated packaging.The 5 things bacteria need to multiply are temperature (warmth), moisture, food, time and the correct PH. Bacteria need warmth to grow faster. Bacteria need moisture to dissolve the food they use for energy. Bacteria need food to live. Bacteria need time to grow. Bacteria need the correct PH to grow, otherwise they will die out. Food handlers can control the growth and multiplication of bacteria by washing hands, wiping worksurfaces after use, not eating food past its use-by date, using separate chopping boards and keeping the fridge temperature below 5 degrees.

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Key Temperatures Linked To Bacteria 4.1

-18 degrees, 0 degrees, 5 degrees, 37 degrees, 63 degrees, 75 degrees and 100 degrees. The temperature zone between 5 degrees and 63 degrees is called the Danger Zone. At -18 degrees, there's no growth of any bacteria. At 0 degrees, the growth of bacteria is slow or there's no growth at all. At 5 degrees, bacteria start to multiply. 37 degrees is human body temperature, so bacteria can grow rapidly. 63 degrees is the boiling point of water, so all spores are destroyed. Bacteria can be killed at a temperature zone of 75 degrees or higher. 100 degrees is the holding temperature of hot food, so all bacteria will start to die out.

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Why Can Food Make People Ill? + Cross-Contaminatio

There are 3 reasons as to why food can make people ill. These are microbes, chemicals and food allergies + intolerance conditions. Microbes such as bacteria, moulds and yeasts can cause food spoilage and as a result of this, the food becomes contaminated. This makes the food unsafe to eat. Chemicals can poison food by being accidentally added to a dish. Chemicals can produce toxins by reacting with ceertain foods. Food allergies and intolerance conditions happen in a small number of people who experience a negative reaction to some certain ingredients in foods and become ill as a result of it. Microbes that make people ill are pathogenic. Microbe is a short word for micro-organism. Microbes that can make people ill are called pathogenic microbes. A pathogen is a micro-organism that can cause disease. Sometimes, microbes aren't harmful and can be used to produce different foods. Good bacteria can be used to make cheese and yoghurt. Yeast can be used to make bread and alcohol. Moulds can be used to make stilton cheese. Pathogenic microbes can be transferred onto food and this is known as cross-contamination. To prevent cross-contamination, certain coloured chopping boards are used for certain foods. Blue chopping boards are used for raw fish. Brown chopping boards are used for raw vegetables. Yellow chopping boards are used for cooked meat, cooked fish and cooked poultry. White chopping boards are used for baked and dairy foods. Green chopping boards are used for salads, leaves and fruits. Red chopping boards are used for raw meat and raw poultry.

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The EHO (Environmental Health Officer) 4.2 and 4.3

The Environmental Health Officer (EHO) deals with a variety of different legislations related to food. They can work in areasd such as food safety, hygiene standards and waste management. Their job is to go into a variety of sectors that work with food such as restaurants, take-aways, warehouses and hotels. Their job is to check that staff are fully trained and are working safely with food at all times. All food premises must be well maintained, be in good working order and be free from pets + pests. Key things checked by Environmental Health Officers (EHO's) are how hygienically the food is handled, the cleanliness of the venue and how the business keeps food safe. The responsibilities of Environmental Health Officers are to inspect food safety standards in businesses, follow up complaints, collect samples for testing in labs, give evidence at prosecutions in court, maintain evidence, submit reports, enforce environmental health laws, look after food safety, look after health + safety, manage noise control and manage pollution control.

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HACCP and Food Legislations 4.3

HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. The Food Safety Act 1990 applies to all food businesses and charities. The 3 things that The Food Safety Act requires all food businesses to do are to make sure the food is safe to eat, to make sure a food product is suitable for human consumption + intended for selling purposes and to make sure that the food isn't labelled incorrectly or advertised in a mis-leading way. The Food Hygiene Regulations apply to all food and drink products at every stage of production. The 5 things that people must do in order to follow these regulations are to ensure the food is handled, supplied + sold in a hygienic way, to indentify potential food safety hazards in all activities of the food business, to know which stages in food handling are critical points in food safety (where things could potentially go wrong), to decide what control measures should be put in place to prevent risks to food safety and to ensure that safety control measures are in place, always followed and regularly maintained as well as reviewed.

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The Thirteen Food Hygiene Regulations 4.3

The 13 Food Hygiene Regulations that you must follow in order to prevent the spread of bacteria are: 1. Always wash your hands before handling food, after handling raw food and after going to the toilet. 2. Tell your employer immediately if you have a skin, nose, throat or digestive illness. Make sure all cuts are covered with a blue plaster. 3. Keep yourself clean and wear clean clothes. 4. Don't smoke in a food room or kitchen. 5. Never cough or sneeze over food. 6. Clear away and clean as you cook. Keep all equipment and worksurfaces clean. 7. Use very hot water and clean dishcloths to wash and dry equipment and surfaces. 8. Prepare raw and cooked food in separate areas with separate equipment. 9. Keep food covered and either refrigerated at 5 degrees or piping hot at 70 degrees. 10. Food kept in storage cupboards should be properly sealed and used in rotation. 11. Keep your hands off food as far as possible and use disposable gloves to handle food where appropriate. 12. Ensure that waste food is disposed of properly, keep the lid on the bin and wash your hands after using it. These bins should be regularly cleaned and dis-infected. 13. Tell your employer if you can't follow the rules - don't break the law.

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Food Labelling And Environmental Standards 4.3

There are twelve things that must be on a food label by law. These are: 1. Nutrition information 2. Allergen ingredients 3. List of ingredients 4. The quantity of certain ingredients 5. The name of the food product 6. A description of the food product 7. Indication of minimum durability 8. The "net" weight of the food product 9. Place of origin 10. Cooking or usage instructions 11. Storage conditions + instructions 12. Contact details of food manufacturer The Environmental Standards are to: 1. Use locally grown food to cut down on transport 2. Serve more meals that have been produced with high animal welfare standards 3. Serve sustainably caught fish 4. Support farmers in other countries by purchasing fair-trade food products 5. Treat all employees equally as well as fairly + give them a chance to improve their skills 6. Get involved with the community 7. Produce healthy + balanced meals 8. Use energy efficient equipment + avoid wasting water 9. Reduce wastage of food 10. Recycle materials where possible

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Bacteria Fact Files 4.4

Bacillus Cereus - What is it found in? Rice, sauces, soups + leftover foods Food poisoning symptoms? Nausea (being sick), muscle cramps + diarrhoea How long will it take for you to become ill? 6 to 15 hours How long will the illness last? 24 hours (a day) Clostridium Perfringens - What is it found in? Raw meat + poultry products Food poisoning symptoms? Abdominal pain, stomach cramps, nausea (being sick) + diarrhoea How long will it take for you to become ill? 24 hours (a day) How long will the illness last? 1 to 2 weeks Campylobacter - What is it found in? Raw meat, unpasteurised milk + contaminated water Food poisoning symptoms? Headaches, abdominal pain, diarrhoea + nausea (being sick) How long will it take for you to become ill? 2 to 5 days How long will the illness last? Up to 10 days Listeria - What is it found in? Water, raw milk + raw meat Food poisoning symptoms? Diarrhoea, muscle ache fever + flu-like symptoms How long will it take for you to become ill? 3 to 10 days How long will the illness last? Days or weeks E.Coli - What is it found in? Undercooked ground beef, vegetables that've been washed in contaminated water + fruit juice that hasn't been pasteurised Food poisoning symptoms? Diarrhoea, abdominal pain + fever How long will it take for you to become ill? 24 hours (a day) How long will the illness last? 4 days Staphylococcus Aureus - What is it found in? Salad, ham + eggs Food poisoning symptoms? Boils, impetigo + scalded skin syndrome How long will it take for you to become ill? 1 to 6 hours How long will the illness last? 24 to 48 hours (a day to 2 days) Salmonella - What is it found in? Eggs, raw meat + raw milk Food poisoning symptoms? Headaches, diarrhoea, cramps, chills + nausea (being sick) How long will it take for you to become ill? 12 to 72 hours How long will the illness last? 4 to 7 days

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