Food management

  • Created by: Iona112
  • Created on: 28-12-21 10:50
Global patterns of food consumption
Canada, the USA & Europe consume the mot food with an average daily intake of over 3400 calories
most countries consume the recommended amount 2000-2400 calories
some parts of the world its below this level
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why is global food consumption increasing
- increasing levels of development & higher standards of living mean people can afford more food
- growing populations
- greater availability of food due to improved transport & storage
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Global pattern of of food supply
global supply of food is uneven
countries with vast Human Resources like China & India have high agricultural outputs
- USA & UK have high outputs due to intensive farming methods & high capitol investment
-countries in Sub saharan Africa have low outputs
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food security
means having access to enough safe affordable nutrition food to maintain a healthy and active life
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food surplus
countries which produce more food than is needed by their population
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how climate affects food supply
affects productivity and the types of food that can be grown
- regions experiencing extreme temps and rainfall struggle to produce food
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how climate change affects food supply
affects global farming farming patterns and productivity
weeds and pests will thrive in warmer conditions
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how technology affects food supply
without technology food yields tend to remain low
unskilled use of technology like poor use of irrigation can lead to water-logging and salinisation
In HICs mechanisation & agribusiness give high levels of productivity
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how Rising global temperature affects food supply
causes pests and diseases to spread North & South from the tropics
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how lack of water affects food supply
lack of water affects many areas that suffer food scarcity especially in sub-Saharan Africa
these areas are more likely to become drier & more decertified in the future as temperature increases
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how conflicts affects food supply
can lead to the destruction of crops and livestock, food insecurity & even famine and death
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how poverty affects food supply
the poorest people can't afford any form of technology, irrigation or fertilisers
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food insecurity
happens when a country can't supply enough food to feed its population
can have significant economic, social and environmental impacts
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a widespread shortage of food often causing malnutrition, starvation and death
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famine in Somalia
- 2010-12
- UN estimates that 258000 people died during the famine
- In Southern Somalia 18% of the children died of lack of food or disease as that they were to weak to fight
- at the height of the crises 30000 people were dying each month
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Causes of the famine in Somalia
- result of 2 successive seasons of low rainfall, poor harvest & the death of livestock
- The southern & central Somalia were the worst hit, they were under the control of the al-Shaba militant group
- they blocked aid from humanitarian agencies
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-lack of a balanced diet & deficiency in minerals and vitamins
- the Food & Agricultural organisation estimates 805 million people suffered from undernutrition between 2012-14
-causes about 300000 deaths per year & contributes to 1/2 of all child deaths
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soil erosion
involves the removal of fertile top soil layers by wind and water
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soil erosion causes
- overgrazing reduces vegetation, leaving the soil exposed
- cultivation of marginal land to increase food production leads to infertility
- deforestation removes protective covering & increases surface run off
- growing crops uses up nutrients, infertil
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rising prices of food
food prices are rising across the world
mainly due to increased prices fro fertilisers, animal feed, food storage, processing & transportation
LICs & the poorest people in NEEs are hit hardest by it
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social unrest
some incidents of social unrest are called food riots as they correspond with high rises in the price of food
the food price index increased dramatically in 2008 & in 2011, both these spikes in food prices coincide with outbreaks of social unrest
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how can food supply be increased
globally there is sufficient food to feed the world's population
food supply is unevenly distributed & food consumption varies greatly
traditional methods & modern irrigation are being used to increase food production
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its the artificial watering of land
most methods involve the extraction of water from rivers or underground aquifers
irrigation is needed where there are water shortages during growing season
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plants are sprayed with fine mist water containing plant nutrients
excess water can be collected and re-used
enables small-scale farmers to increase yields & lower production crops
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plants are grown in gravel in mineral rich water
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positives to aeroponics & hydroponics
speed up plant growth enabling seasonal produce to be grown throughout the year & reduce the use of chemicals
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negatives to aeroponics & hydroponics
some think foods grown this way don't taste as good & the cost for heating & lighting can be high
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the 'new' green revolution
focuses of sustainability and community
in 2006 the Indian gov began a 2nd green revolution using techniques such as
- water harvesting
- soil conservation
- irrigation
- improving seed & livestock quality using science and technology
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uses living organisms to make or modify products or processes
in farming this includes the development of genetically modified crops (GM)
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advantages to biotechnology
-produce higher yields
- use fewer chemicals
- reduce C02 emission
- in the Philippines GM maize has given a 24% increase in yield
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negatives to biotechnology
in the UK there is opposition to GM crops due to the possible effects on the environment & human health
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Appropriate technology
using skills or materials that are cheap & easily available to increase output without putting people out of work.
Often involves small-scale water harvesting equipment, irrigation or faming techniques
appropriate for people living in poorer countries
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Source of the Indus River
- high in the Tibetan Plateau
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where is the Indus River
- flows roughly north to south through the length of Pakistan to reach the Arabians sea
- covers about 1 mill km & includes parts of India, China & Afghanistan
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Why is the Indus River important
important water source for the 2 NEEs India & Pakistan
Indus water Treaty 1960 gave India control of Eastern rivers & Pakistan control of the Indus
the mountain rivers fed by heavy rain & snowmelt supply water used to irrigate the drier agricultural land
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the Indus Basin Irrigations System (IBIS)
- largest continuous irrigation scheme in world
- consists of 3 large dams & over 100 smaller dams that regulate water flow
- 12 link canals enable water to be transferred between rivers
- over 64000 km of smaller canals district water across the country
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advantages of the Indus Basin Irrigation System
improves food security & makes 40% more land available for cultivation
over 14 mill ha of land is not irrigated
irrigation increased crop yields: wheat 36%, rice 39% & fruit 150%
HEP is generated by main dams
Diets improved as greater range of food
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disadvantages of the Indus Basin Irrigation System
- some farmers take unfair shares of water, depriving others down stream
- poor irrigation techniques mean water is wasted & can causes salinisation
-population growth will increase demand in future
- high costs to maintain
- high evaporation in summer
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what is sustainable food supply
ensures that fertile soil, water & environmental resources are available for future generations
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organic farming
- the growing of crops or rearing of livestock without the hose of chemicals
- production & labour costs may be higher than in other forms of farming
- many choose to pay higher prices for organic produce
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- a system of agricultural and social design principles based upon or directly using patterns and features observed in natural environments
- a system of food production which follows the patterns & features of natural ecosystems
- aims to be sustainable,
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what does permaculture involve
includes harvesting rainwater, composting waste & re-designing gardens to include a wide variety of plants & trees which provide a range of wildlife habitats
includes organic farming, growing and buying local food and eating seasonal food.
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permaculture practices
- organic gardening
- use of crop rotation
- keeping animals like sheep and pigs and bees
- managing woodland
- using natural predators such as ladybirds to control aphids, instead of chemical pesticides.
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urban farming
the growing of fruits, herbs and vegetables and raising animals in towns and cities, a process that is accompanied by many other activities such as processing and distributing food, collecting and reusing waste.
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why is urban farming becoming more popular
- a greater choice of fresh foods are available for a healthier diet
- new jobs are created in deprived urban areas
brightens up urban environments
- attracts wildlife such as birds & butterflies
- social benefits from communities working together
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commercial fish catching
increasing demand for food & technological improvements has resulted in greater catches of fish
commercial trawlers use nets to catch all fish, these can damage marine ecosystems & breeding grounds & is unsustainable
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intensive fish farming
almost 90% of the worlds fisheries are fully or over-exploited
intensive fish farming ( salmon, trout & prawns) using chemicals has boomed in recent years
ecosystems can be harmed & diseases spread to wild fish populations
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sustainable fishing
involves setting catch limits ( quotas) & monitoring fish breeding & practices.
The EU sets standards as part of its common fishery policy, with limits on fish catches
public awareness is increasing & sales of fish from sustainable sources have increased
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intensive livestock production
can involve unsustainable practices
- large amounts of energy used for indoor rearing
- chemicals used to maximise production
- huge amounts of waste need to be removed & safely disposed without polluting environment
- high conc of animals damage soil
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organic farming practices
- GM crops are banned
- wildlife is encouraged as a natural pest control
- crop rotation used to keep soil fertile& reduce pests & diseases
- cover is grown to maintain nitrogen in soil
- crops grown in soil that has been chemical-free for 5 years
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sustainable meat production
- involves small-scale livestock farms using free-range or organic methods
- stocking levels are low & there is minimal impact on the environment
- prices may be higher in the shops but quality & the animal welfare standards are higher
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The Michigan Urban Farming Initiative
- the Michigan urban farming initiative in the USA aims to address problems of urban decay, poor diet & food insecurity in Detroit, Michigan
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The Michigan Urban Farming Initiative
what are its practices
- Urban communities are encouraged to work together to turn wasteland into productive farmland, providing jobs & easier access to healthy food
- a community resource centre & demo farm have been set up & over 150 garden beds have been created
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seasonal food consumption
- with better storage & faster transport around the world it is now possible to eat every type of food throughout the year
- local food sourcing is more sustainable, it reduces food miles & our carbon footprint
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how much food is wasted every year
- around 32% of all food produced is lost or wasted each year, most in richer countries
- almost 1/2 is fruit & vegetables as they have to be kept fresh & stored in cool conditions with careful packaging & transportation
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reducing food loss & waste
by halting the amount of food waste, the gap between food supply & demand could be reduced by 22% by 2050
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ways to reduce food waste by storage
- improved food storage & distribution using refrigerated containers & climate controlled warehouses
- processing surplus food to increase shelf life
- the use of cooling systems where there is no refrigeration
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ways to reduce food waste by packaging
- clearer food labelling such as 'best before' & 'use by'
- using sealed plastic bags to make fresh food last longer
- more sensible approach to using food past its sell by date
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why should we eat seasonal produce
- reduces the energy needed to grow & transport food, & reduces CO2 emissions
- gives support to the local economy
- food thats been transported a long way can be more expensive
-locally sourced food often tastes better & is likely more nutritious
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Makueni county
- Makueni county in eastern Kenya is 200km south east of Nairobi
- it has the population of 885000 with most living in small isolated rural communities
- the average annual rainfall is just 500 mm
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what food is grown in Makueni
main crops are
maize, cassava, sorghum, millet, beans & sweet potatoes
- the area has rich volcanic soils which are high in nutrients
- low & unreliable rainfall affects agricultural output with frequent crop failures
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The Makueni food & water security programme
In April 2014 the charity 'Just a Drop' together with the African Sand Dam Foundation provided direct help to 2 small villages (population 800) & to Kanyenyoni primary school (463 pupils)
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what the Makueni food & water security programme includes to improve water security
- improves access to clean, safe water by building sand dams for each village
- rainwater harvesting on the school roof
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what the Makueni food & water security programme includes to improve farming & food security
- training programme to support local farmings
- growing trees to reduce soil erosion, increase biodiversity & provide medicinal products
- increasing food security by providing a reliable source of water for crops & keeping livestock
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how to the sand banks help water supply
- store water in the ground, filtering & cleaning the rainwater as it soaks into the soil
- with final operation & maintenance costs sand dams provide a cost effective & sustainable way to provide a water supply in rural areas
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how has the Makueni food & water security programme been successful
- crop yields & food security have increased
- water-borne diseases have been reduced
- less time fetching water, more time is available for work or education
- the school now has a safe & Clean water supply
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


why is global food consumption increasing


- increasing levels of development & higher standards of living mean people can afford more food
- growing populations
- greater availability of food due to improved transport & storage

Card 3


Global pattern of of food supply


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


food security


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


food surplus


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