Factors involved in the acquisition of expertise with examples from cognitive and physical skill

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What year did Norman propose his characteristics of expertise?
1982
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What are they?
Smoothness (ease of skill), automaticity, little mental effort, low degredation under stress and view it as easy
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What is the acronym for Norman's characterisation of skill acquistion?
ASAT
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What does the A stand for?
Accretion - encoding new information into existing memory schemata
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What does the S stand for?
Structuring - new conceptual structures created
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What does the A stand for?
learning by Analogy - adapting existing schemata
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What does the T stand for?
Tuning - fine adjustment with practice
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Who conducted a study about baseball?
Spilich, Voss and Chiese
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What did they find?
That hi knowledge baseball players understood and recalled a passage better, and forgot less, than a lo knowledge group
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Who conducted a study about chess?
Chase and Simon (1972)
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What did they find?
That chess experts were bettering at remembering realistic chess layouts than non-experts, but no better at random layouts
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Experts work .... whereas novices work .... from problem
Forwards, backwards
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Who conducted a study about a Russian Crop problem?
Voss et al (1984)
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What did they find?
Experts took longer to answer than novices but provided a more long-term solution
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Who theorised different types of practice?
Bloom (1981)
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What are they?
Play, Deliberate and for work
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Who proposed the different types of mapping?
Shiffrin and Schneider
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What are they?
Consistent mapping = always responding to stimulus the same way, varied = different responses
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What is the 10 year rule?
10,000 hours of practice
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How many hours different is this from the next highest level?
2,500
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What did Ericsson (1994) propose?
That expertise increases directly with practice and there is an advantage of starting youn
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What did Ericsson (1993) propose?
4 hours of practice a day, in the morning, is optimal
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Who proposed a conclusion?
Glaser and Chi (1986)
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What did they suggest?
That expertise was due to knowledge and not a basic capacity
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What is the "formula" for expertise?
Merit + IQ + effort = expertise
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What are the unresolved issues?
What kind of deliberate training is needed and can the length of training be shortened?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are they?

Back

Smoothness (ease of skill), automaticity, little mental effort, low degredation under stress and view it as easy

Card 3

Front

What is the acronym for Norman's characterisation of skill acquistion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the A stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the S stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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