# f452

Variable
An allocated space in memory with a given identifier and datatype. Value can change during execution of the program.
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Constant
A placeholder in memory whose value cannot change during the execution of the program
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Local variable
A variable which only exists with a given area of a program, e.g. a sub-routine.
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Global variable
A variable which exists throughout a whole program.
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Scope
The scope of a variable is the area in which it exists.
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Selection
A way of controlling the flow of a program by choosing which statements get executed based on a condition.
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Algorithm
A set of instructions designed to solve a problem. Can be described using a flowchart or pseudo-code.
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Iteration (repetition)
Where a piece of code it executed more than once based on a condition
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While loop
Code is executed while a condition is true. Of the format; While condition Code Wend
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(repeat until)
loop Code is executed whilst a condition is false.
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For loop
A count-controlled loop. Executes a set number of times. Of the format For i = 1 to 10 Code Next i
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Infinite loop
A loop where it's stopping condition is never met. Will cause a run-time error.
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Nesting
A loop within another loop
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Expression
A statement which changes the value of a variable using arithmetic
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Condition
A Boolean expression (e.g. returns true or false). Used in condition?controlled loops and If statements.
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Assignment operator
Used to assign a value to a variable, e.g. Variable = Expression The variable is always on the left. An expression can simply be another variable.
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Relational operator
Used to compare expressions to give a Boolean result, e.g. , =, , = e.g. a < b+ 1
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Sequence
Code is run line by line in the order in which it is written starting from the top.
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Parameter
When a sub-routine is declared the data items needed in is execution are declared as parameters. Parameters are given a name and datatype and are used in the sub?routine code, e.g. Sub doit(i as integer, name as string)
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Function
Sub-routine which returns a single value to the code which is used as if it were a variable.
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Procedure
Sub-routine which executes some code then the flow returns to whence it came.
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Recursion
A sub-routine (function or procedure) which calls itself.
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Pseudo code
Pseudo-code is a way of describing an algorithm without using an actual high-level language. Constructs such as if statements and loops are used. The code is a mixture of English and programming language.
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Statement (instruction)
A single line code that is executed by the program.
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Boolean operator
AND OR and NOT. Used to combine Boolean types in conditions.
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Array
A data structure where more than one item of the same datatype can be stored using a single identifier.
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2D Array
An array of arrays. Items are identified using two indexes.
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Array index
Used to identify an item in an array.
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Array bounds
The array bounds are the limits of the index.
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Array Out of bounds error
Is where an index beyond the bounds is referred to. Will cause a run-time error.
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Indentation
Indentation Used to make it clear where programming constructs begin and end,
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Datatype
All data stored in memory must be of a pre-determined type. Each language has it's own set of datatypes which each have a set amount of memory reserved. Typically types include String Integer Real Boolean Date etc.
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String
A datatype used to store textual information. Text can include letters, numbers and special characters
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Boolean
A datatype which only has two possible values, true of false.
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Integer
A datatype used to store whole numbers. Typically stored as 4 or 8 bytes.
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Real
A datatype used to store floating point numbers.
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sub routine
a self-contained block of code that usually performs one job.
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Keyword
These are words that are already used in the programming language for a specific purpose such as IF, END etc
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Assignment
Programs use variables that can be given different values while the program is running. The operation of setting an actual value to a variable is Assignment.
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Access Mode
Most language will require the program to make the operating system aware that a file is about to be used. This is often done using an OPEN command. When the file is opened it is often necessary to specify how the file is going to be used
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Alpha Testing
Alpha testing takes place within the company producing the software and employees of the company test the program as though they were potential users.
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Beta Testing
Takes place after Alpha testing and is carried out when the software is nearly complete and very similar to the final product. It is released to users outside of the company who give their feedback on the features of the software and any
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Borderline Data
Borderline data is the data just on the boundaries of what is accepted and what is rejected. Therefore testing of this data needs to be handled carefully to ensure that they are dealt with correctly
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Breakpoints
Breakpoints are markers added to a line of code requesting that the program stop running when it gets to that line. At this point, the programmer can check to see if the code has run as expected so far. This helps narrow down where errors lie.
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Dry run
In order to locate the cause and location of an error, it is useful to go through the code manually, executing and recording each line in turn as if you were the programmer. This is called a Dry Run
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A placeholder in memory whose value cannot change during the execution of the program

Constant

### Card 3

#### Front

A variable which only exists with a given area of a program, e.g. a sub-routine.

### Card 4

#### Front

A variable which exists throughout a whole program.

### Card 5

#### Front

The scope of a variable is the area in which it exists.