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The Three Box Model
Bus
MAIN
PROCESSOR I/O
MEMORY
The Von Neumann Architecture…read more

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The Processor
The processor is the
brain in the system. It
is responsible for
executing programs
and supervising the
functioning of other
parts of the system.
Single chip processors
are known as
microprocessors e.g.
Pentium 4. A chip or
integrated circuit DID YOU KNOW???
contains some
The Intel Itanium 2
100,000,000 or more processor has nearly 1
transistors. billion transistors…read more

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Main Memory
Main memory or immediate
access store (IAS) can be
considered to be memory
that is directly addressable
by the processor. In the Von
Neumann architecture it is
used as a store for program
instructions and data.
It is available in one or more integrated circuits or memory chips. These
are composed of byte-sized areas called memory locations
Main memory is made up of RAM chips but can also include one or more
ROM chips.…read more

Slide 5

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The bus
A computer bus is a set of parallel wires that connect
independent components of a computer system in order to
pass signals between them. Some signals represent data,
some represent an address and others control information.
DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS
A bi-directional bus, A unidirectional bus, A bi-directional
typically consisting typically consisting bus, typically
of 32 wires used to of 32 wires, used to consisting of 8
transport data address memory wires, used to
between the three and I/O locations transport signals
components of the between the three
three-box model components of
the three box
model…read more

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I/O
To be useful the CPU needs to communicate with devices
known as peripherals. The control bus carries control
signals such as these
Memory read ­ used to
I/O ­ used to indicate that the assert that the memory
processor wishes to use an I/O location currently in use is
controller not main memory being read from
when I/O and main memory
Memory write - used to
share memory addresses.
assert that the memory
location currently in use
is being written to
Clock signal ­ for timing purposes
Reset signal ­ used to initialise
components…read more

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