F222 - 2.1.1.4 - cancer

what is a tumor?
a mass of abnormal cells
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What is a benign tumor?
it only grows in one place and does not spread to others
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How is a benign tumor usually removed?
surgery
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is a benign tumor likely to come back?
no
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One example of a benign tumor?
moles
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How can a benign tumor be harmful?
if it presses on nerves or blood vessels
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Why are malignant tumors more harmful that benign tumors?
because the cells from the tumor break off and spread to other parts of the body
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How do the cancerous cells move around to the other bodys?
lymph or blood systems
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What is the technical term for cancerous cells moving to other parts of the body?
metastasis
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what are secondary tumors called?
metastases
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What causes cells to turn cancerous?
carcinogens
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Does a cancer cell divide by mitosis or meiosis?
mitosis
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What stops a cell from dividing too often?
proto-oncogenes
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How do proto-oncogenes work?
they carry a genetic code for a receptor protein in the cell membrane
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what happens when the receptor protein which the proto-oncogene made binds with the specific growth factor?
the genes needed for DNA replication are switched on
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how else do proto-oncogenes work?
carry the genetic code for a growth factor
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What do we call changes to DNA?
mutations
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What does a mutation to the oncogene lead to?
uncontrolled cell division
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What gene codes for proteins that stop the cell cycle?
tumour suppressor genes
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What do tumor suppressor genes cause the cell to do?
go through apoptosis
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Name a tumour suppressor gene?
p53
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What happens if the p53 gene is mutates?
cells with damaged DNA are not detected and are allowed to carry on dividing passing on their mutations
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what factors increase the rate of mutation?
carcinogens
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name two carcinogens?
some chemicals in cigarette smoke and ultraviolet light
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What cells do ultraviolet light affect?
skin cells
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what gene is affected by ultraviolet light?
p53
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What carcinogen does cigarette smoke contain?
benzopyrene
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What cells are affected by cigarette smoke?
cells in the lining of the respiratory tract
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What happens to benzopyrene in the cells of the repiratory tract?
gets converted into another chemical which binds to p53 and mutates it
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a benign tumor?

Back

it only grows in one place and does not spread to others

Card 3

Front

How is a benign tumor usually removed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

is a benign tumor likely to come back?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

One example of a benign tumor?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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