F215 Keywords

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A length of DNA that codes for one or more polypeptides
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Large polymer molecule made of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds
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All the genetic information within an organism/cell
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A macromolecule. A polymer of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds
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The formation of an RNA molecule using a length of DNA as a template
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Stage of protein synthesis in which amino acids are assmbled at the ribosomes. Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds, following the sequence of codons on the mRNA and the nucleotide sequence on the DNA determines the tertiary structure.
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Structural change to genetic material, either to a gene or to a chromosome
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Chromosome mutation
Random change to the structure of the chromosome. Different types: inversion, deletion, translocation, non-disjunction
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Inversion mutation
A section of chromosome turns through 180 degrees
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Deletion mutation
A section of the chromosome is lost
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Non-disjunction mutation
Homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly at meiosis ! or chromatids fail to separate at meiosis 2; if this happens to a whole set of chromosomes, polyploidy results
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DNA mutation
A change to the DNA structure. May be substiution of one base pair for another, inversion of a base triplet, deletion of a base pair or triplet of bases, addition of a base pair or triplet of babes or a triple nucleotide repeat (stutter)
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An alternative version of a gene
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A unit consisting of genes that work together under the control of an operator gene. The lac operon consists of two structural genes and an operator gene. First discovered in prokaryotes but also in eukaryotes
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Repressor protein
A protein in which its binding to the operator inhibits the transcription of one or more genes
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Homeobox genes
Genes that control the development of the body plan of an organism
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Endocytosis of large solid molecules into a cell
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Type of nuclear division. A reduction division. The chomosome number is halved. It involves two divisions. It produces cells that are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell
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Specific position on a chromosome, occupied by a specific gene
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Crossing over
When non-sister chromatids exchange alleles during prophase 1 of meiosis
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A characteristic where both alleles for a gene contribute to the phenotype
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Eukaryotic cell or organism that has two different alleles for a specific gene
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Eukaryotic cell or organism that has two identical alleles for a specific gene
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The interaction of genes concerned with the expression of one characteristic. One gene may mask the expression of another gene
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Chi squared test
Statistical test that can be carried out on data that are in categories. It enables the investigator to determine how closely an observed set of data compares to the expected data
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All of the organisms of one species, who live in the same place at the same time, and who can breed together
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Gene pool
Total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members within a population of organism
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Selection pressure
Environmental factor that confers greater chances of surviving and reproducing on some members of the population than on others
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Biological species concept
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed and prodcue fertile offspring and is reproductively isolated from other groups
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Phylogenetic species concept
A group of organisms that have similar morphology, physiology, embryology, and behaviour and occupy the same ecological niche
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Monophyletic group
This group includes an ancestral organism and all its descendent species
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Paraphyletic group
Includes the most recent ancestor but not all its descendents. It is a monophyletic group with one or more clades excluded. E.g grouping of reptiles which excludes birds which are descendents of reptiles
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Vegetative propagation
Asexual reproduction in plants making use of specialised vegetative structures that grown to form new and separate but cloned individual organisms
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Tissue culture
Separation of cells of undifferentiated cells grown in a nutrient medium containing hormones that stimulate development of the complete organism
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A mass of undifferentiated plant cells formed by meristem tissue extracted from the plant and grown in tissue culture
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Cloned animal
An individual that is genetically identical to another animal. The animal has the same genotype as the donor organism
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Use of microorganisms or biochemical reactions to generate useful products
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Growth points in a plant where immature cells are still capable of dividing
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Growth of microorganisms. Could be a single species (pure culture) or a mixture of species (mixed culture). Can be cultured in a nutrient broth or nutrient agar gel
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Aseptic technique
Any techniques of equipment or materials that are designed to prevent contamination by foreign and unwanted microorganisms
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Without contamination. In biotechnology, it refers to a lack of contamination by foreign unwanted microorganisms
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Immobilisation of enzymes
The technique which involves enzyme molecules being hel and separated from a substrate mixture. Substrate can remain bound despite immobilisation, before returning to the mixture and leaving the enzyme in place
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The study of the whole set of genetic information in the form of DNA base sequences that occur in the cells of organisms of a particular species
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The method used to separate molecules in a mixture based on size. WHen a current is applied, charged particles are attracted to the oppositely charged electrode. The smallest molecules move fastest, so molecules separate out by size
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Short single stranded sequences of DNA around 10 bases in length. Needed in sequence reactions and polymerase chain reactions to bind section of DNA because DNA polymerase cannot bind directly to single stranded DNA fragments
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Hydrogen bond formation between complementary base pairs when sections of single stranded DNA or RNA join together. Annealing is seen when complementary sticky ends join and where DNA probes atttach to a complementary DNA section
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Sticky end
Formed when DNA is cut using a restriction enzyme. It is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen a the end of a cut section. Complementary sticky ends can anneal as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
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An organism that contains DNA from another organism, as a result of genetic engineering
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Replica plating
Growing bacteria on an agar plate, then transferring a replica of that growth to other plates using a sterile velvet pad. The replica plates contain different antibiotics. Analysis provides insight of the genetic properties of the bacteria
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Golden rice
Variety of rice that is genetically engineered to carry large amounts of the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene. Appears golden brown unlike its relative that is white
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An organism that has undergone genetic engineered and is a genetically modified organism
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Small spheres of lipid bilayer containing a functioning allele. They pass through the lipid bilayer of cells and therefore act as vectors to carry the allele into the cell
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Transplantation of cell tissues or organs between animals of different species
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The place where an organism or population of organisms lives
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All of the organisms of one species who live in the same area at the same time and who can breed together
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All the populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time and who can interact with each other
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Primary productivity
The rate at which energy is fixed by photosynthesis via the net flux of carbon from the atmosphere to plants
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Net primary productivity
The rate at which carbohydrate accumulates in tissue of plants. Measured as: net PP = PP - respiratory heat loss which is measured by calculating dry mass. Its also the engergy available to heterotrophs
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A relationship between two organsims from which both benefit
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A form of artificial vegetative propagation using sterile explant tissue grown to form a callus culture from which many new plants are grown by separation and growth of small parts of the callus. Useful in mass-producing plant clones
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A piece of tissue taken from a particular plant (includes meristematic tissue) then sterilised in order to grow a callus in tissue culture micropropagation
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A directional change in a community of organisms over time
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Carrying capacity
The maximum population size that can be mainted over a period of time in a particular habitat
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Programmed cell death. An orderly process by which cells dies after they have undergone the maximum number of divisions
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A struggle between individuals for resources that are not present in amounts adequate to satisfy the needs of all the individuals who depend on those resources
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The cutting of a tree trunk close to the ground to encourage new growth
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Maintenance of biodiversity, including diversity between species, genetic diversity within species, and maintenance of a variety of habitats and ecosystems
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A directional growth response in which the direction of the growth is determined by the direction of the external stimulus
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Bacterial cells can join together and pass plasmid DNA from one bacterial cell to another. This process can take place between bacteria of different species and is of concern in term of passing plasmid located genes for antibiotic resistance
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Continuous culture
A culture of microorganisms set up in a reaction vessel to which substrates are added and from which products are removed as the fermentation process continues
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Shoots grow towards light (they are positively phototrophic) which allows them to photosynthesise
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Roots grow towards the pull of gravity which anchors them in the soil and helps to take up water which is needed for support (turgidity), for photosynthesis and to cool the plant. Also contains minerals and nitrates for amino acid synthesis
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Batch culture
A culture of microorganisms that takes place in a single fermentation. Products are separated from the mixture at the end of the fermentation process
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Use of microorganisms to remove waste products from a location or substance . THe most important example is waste water (sewage) treatment.
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Closed culture
A culture of microorganisms set up in a reacion vessel and then allowed to grow without the addition of nutrients or the removal of products or wastes
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Apical dominance
The growing apical bud at the tip of the shoot inhibits growth of lateral buds further down the shoot
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Largest and most recognisable part of the brain that is responsible for elements of the nervous system including thought, imagination and reasoning
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Part of the brain that controls the coordination of movement and posture
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Controls the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine glands
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Medulla oblongata
Controls the action of smooth muscle in the gut wall and controls breathing movements and heart rate
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Central nervous system
Consists of the brain and spinal cord. It has overall control over the coordination of the nervous system
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Peripheral nervous system
The sensory and motor neurones connecting the central nervous system to the sensors and effectors round the body
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Neuromuscular juntion
Specialised synapse which occurs at the end of a motor neurone where it meets a muscle fibre. Release of acetyl choline following depolarisation at the junction, stimulating contraction of the muscle fibre
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In voluntary muscle, the span between one Z-line to the next. Z-lines are cetnral to part of the I band which alternates with the A band. The sarcomere is the smallest unit of contraction, consisting of thick and thin filaments.
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Cross bridge
In voluntary muscle, the joining of a myosin head group to an actin thin filament in the presence of calcium ions
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Fight or flight response
Refers to full range of coordinated responses of animals to situations of perceived danger. The hormonal and nervous sytem combine to have dramatic effects that either cause confrontation of the danger or escaping it
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Stimulus that causes the stress response. Causes wear and tear on the body's phisical and mental resource
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Innate behaviour
An animal that is capable of from birth withouy any learning or experience
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Learned behaviour
Refers to animal responses that change or adapt with experience. There is a range of different types: learning to respond to stimulation, the ability to consider a problem and formlate a plan
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Within a group, individuals are placed in order of importance. This is often shown by individuals higher up receiving more food and access to whichever mate they chose
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Gene that codes for a dopamine receptor molecule
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Social behaviour
Organisms of a particular species living together in groups with relatively defined roles for each member of the group
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A mental health condition, characterised by an impaired grasp on reality. Diminished impulse control and disorder of perception
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Card 2


Large polymer molecule made of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds



Card 3


All the genetic information within an organism/cell


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Card 4


A macromolecule. A polymer of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds


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Card 5


The formation of an RNA molecule using a length of DNA as a template


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