Explanations for Insomnia

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Some people suffer difficulties in sleeping for a ----- period of time (a few days of weeks) = tends to be caused by worries, such as exam stress or death in the family, noises at night, jet lag or a temporary medical condition.
Short
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------- insomnia describes sleep difficulties for more than 4 weeks (DSM definition) - a distinction is then made between secondary & primary insomnia (secondary is much more common).
Chronic
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------- insomnia occurs when a person is having sleep problems that aren't directly associated with and other health condition or physical cause (such as drug abuse or medications).
Primary
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A person may be feeling stressed/depressed but such psychological states aren't the ----- - it may be that they've developed bad sleep habits (going to bed late) & this causes insomnia, but insomnia is the only problem.
Cause
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Sometimes insomnia may have had an identifiable cause which has been gotten rid of but the insomnia still persists due to an ----------- of sleep difficulty (they've come to expect insomnia which leads to anxiety which keeps them awake).
Expectation
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--------- insomnia is when someone's having sleep problems due to something else - there's a single, underlying medical, psychiatric or environmental cause.
Secondary
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Secondary insomnia is a ------- of the main disorder (it comes second, after the main disorder) - e.g. insomnia is a characteristic of illness, such as depression (medical condition is first & is the underlying cause of the insomnia).
Symptom
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Insomnia is typical of people who do ----- work or who have circadian rhythm disorders, such as phase delay syndrome, where abnormal biological rhythms cause sleepiness at inappropriate times.
Shift
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Older people tend to be more likely to experience insomnia because of ---------- when sleeping due to, for example, rheumatism - they also have more difficulty sleeping due to reduced sleep (SWS) & therefore are more easily awoken.
Discomfort
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Insomnia may be the result of ------------- factors, such as too much caffeine or alcohol.
Environmental
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Other sleep disorders (-----------) like apnoea can cause insomnia.
Parasomnias
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It's important to ---------- between primary & secondary insomnia because of the implications for treatment - if insomnia is a symptom of another disorder then it's important to treat the disorder, not the symptom (insomnia).
Distinguish
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It may not be that ------ to work out the cause of a person's insomnia - does depression cause insomnia or does insomnia cause depression?
Simple
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Who studied almost 15,000 Europeans & found that insomnia more often preceded rather than followed cases of mood disorders? This shows that in some cases it might be helpful to treat the insomnia regardless of it being primary or secondary.
Ohayon and Roth
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--------- impairment may be a consequence of insomnia (e.g. memory loss & poor concentration throughout the day).
Cognitive
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Who found participants with insomnia scored lower on the Medical Outcomes Study Cognitive Scale than control participants, demonstrating problems with concentration, memory, reasoning & problem solving?
Zammit et al
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Sleepiness & cognitive difficulties creat a ---- for safe driving.
Risk
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Who compared the performance (driving) of adults who'd been deprived of 1 night's sleep with adults given alcohol? They found that even keeping people awake for 3 more hours than usual led to impairments equivalent to modest levels of alcohol.
Arendt et al
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The National Traffic ------ Administration estimates that 1500 deaths annually are related to sleepiness/fatigue.
Safety
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It's possible that insomnia's actually a ----- of psychological problems, such as depression & anxiety disorders, rather than an effect.
Cause
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Who found that insomnia was also associated with increased risks for drug & alcohol abuse?
Breslau et al
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Who found fewer immune cells in the bodies of people with chronic insomnia compared with good sleepers? (Insomniacs more vulnerable to physical illness).
Savard et al
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It could be that ------ was the initial cause of insomnia & ------ has negative effects on the immune system.
Stress
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Who propose a useful distinction between predisposing, precipitating & perpetuating components in their 3P model of insomnia?
Spielman and Glovinsky
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Predisposing factors include a -------- vulnerability for insomnia - evidence for a genetic link comes from twin studies.
Genetic
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Who found that 50%of the variance in the risk for insomnia could be attributed to genetic factors?
Watson et al
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Research also suggests that ------------- factors may predispose a person to develop insomnia.
Physiological
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Who found that insomniacs are more likely to experience hyperarousal (high physiological arousal) both when awake & asleep? Hyperarousal would make it difficult to get to sleep & may explain why only some people develop insomnia.
Bonnet and Arand
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Precipitating factors are the events that ------- the disorder in a vulnerable individual.
Trigger
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2 people may experience the same stressors but only 1 develops insomnia as a consequence because of ------------ factors - environmental triggers for insomnia include stress & shift work.
Predisposing
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Perpetuating factors = factors that -------- insomnia even when original causes (such as stress) have disappeared/been treated - perpetuating factors include being tense when going to bed because of previous sleep problems.
Maintain
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Who suggests that perpetuating factors are the key to chronic insomnia?
Espie
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The large number of factors that may contribute to a person's insomnia makes it difficult to conduct meaningful research because research tends to find only ----- effects.
Small
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Who found that teenage insomnia is a major problem, as common as either substance abuse or depression, but given less publicity?
Roberts et al
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IDA - 1 of the causes of primary insomnia is a person's belief that they're going to have difficulty sleeping - such an expectation becomes --------------- because the person is tense when trying to sleep.
Self-fulfilling
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IDA - (expectation) - 1 way to treat this is based on the ----------- theory - the insomniac attributes their sleep difficulty to insomnia but if they can be convinced their problem lies elsewhere it will end their dysfunctional attribution.
Attribution
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Who gave insomniacs a pill & told them that it would either stimulate them/act like a sedative? Those who expected arousal went to sleep faster because they attributed their arousal to the pill and therefore actually relaxed.
Storms and Nisbett
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

------- insomnia describes sleep difficulties for more than 4 weeks (DSM definition) - a distinction is then made between secondary & primary insomnia (secondary is much more common).

Back

Chronic

Card 3

Front

------- insomnia occurs when a person is having sleep problems that aren't directly associated with and other health condition or physical cause (such as drug abuse or medications).

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

A person may be feeling stressed/depressed but such psychological states aren't the ----- - it may be that they've developed bad sleep habits (going to bed late) & this causes insomnia, but insomnia is the only problem.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sometimes insomnia may have had an identifiable cause which has been gotten rid of but the insomnia still persists due to an ----------- of sleep difficulty (they've come to expect insomnia which leads to anxiety which keeps them awake).

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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