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Intro to Insomnia AO1
Short Term insomnia Chronic Insomnia
· Where an individual has · Over 4 weeks
trouble sleeping for a
few days or weeks · There is primary and
secondary insomnia
· It's caused by worrying,
illness, noises at night · Secondary insomnia is
or jetlag more common…read more

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Chronic Insomnia AO1
Primary Insomnia Secondary insomnia
· Sleeping problems aren't · Is caused by underlying medical,
associated with health psychiatric or environmental
conditions or physical causes e. causes
g. medication
· It's typical of shift workers because of
· Stress/depression isn't the their abnormal biological rhythms
cause
· Older people are more likely to suffer
· It may be due to bad sleep from this form on insomnia because
habits such as staying up sleep could be uncomfortable from
late rheumatism etc.
· It may be that the physical · Environmental factors = caffeine,
cause of insomnia is gone but alcohol etc.
the individual expects to have
sleep difficulties so gets · Parasomnia's (other sleep disorders)
anxious which makes the increase the likelihood of insomnia…read more

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AO2 ­ the importance of distinguishing
between primary and secondary
insomnia
· If insomnia is a symptom of something it is important that you treat the cause
of insomnia rather than insomnia
· It may not be easy to distinguish whether insomnia is a cause or effect
· However it is important to distinguish what type in order to treat it properly
Ohayon and Roth (2003)
· Insomnia often comes before mood disorders such as depression
· Therefore it might be good to treat insomnia no matter if it is primary or
secondary
· This suggests that distinguishing which type of chronic insomnia it is isn't
important because it's the insomnia that should always be treated…read more

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AO2 ­ cognitive impairment is a
consequence or insomnia
Zammit et al (1999)
· Insomnia can cause concentration, memory, reasoning and problem solving
impairment
Arendt et al (2001)
· Keeping people awake for even 3 more hours makes driving impairments equal to
the impairments of modest alcohol consumption
Breslau (1996)
· Insomniacs are more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs
This shows the massive effect that insomnia can have on an individuals life and
therefore emphasises the importance of treating the condition…read more

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AO2 ­ immune system under functioning
is a consequence or insomnia
Savard et al (2003)
Chronic Insomniacs: Good Sleepers:
· Have fewer immune · Have more immune
cells cells
· Are more vulnerable to · Are less vulnerable to
physical illness physical illness
However, this doesn't show a causal relationship between
insomnia and immune system functioning. Instead stress from the
insomnia could be the cause of an under functioning immune
system!…read more

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