explanations for forgetting: retrieval failure

  • Created by: IvyVega
  • Created on: 03-06-18 14:32
Lack of cues can cause retrieval failure
when information is initially placed in memory, associated cues are stored at the same time. if these cues are not available at the time of recall, you might not be able to access memories that are actually there.
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encoding specificity principle
tulving suggested that cues help retrieval if the same cues are present at encoding and at retrieval. the closer the retrieval cu to the original cue, the better the cue works.
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some cues have meaning linked to the memory
some cues are linked to the material-to-be-remembered in a meaningful way.
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some cues have no meaningful link.
other cues are also encoded at the time of learning but not in a meaningful way: context-dependent forgetting- when memory retrieval is dependent on an external cue. state-dependent forgetting- when memory retrieval is dependent on an internal cue.
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procedure- part 1
cues were the contexts where learning and recall took place- on land or underwater. deep-sea divers learned word lists and were later asked to recall them.
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procedure- part 2
group 1- learn on land- recall on land. group 2- learn on land- recall underwater. group 3- learn underwater- recall on land. group 4- learn underwater- recall underwater.
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findings- part 1
when the environmental contexts of learning and recall did not match accurate recall was 40% lower than when they did match.
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findings- part 2
when the external cues available at learning were different from the ones at recall, this led to retrieval failure due to lack of cues.
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findings- part 3
this study demonstrates context-dependent forgetting because information was not accessible when context at recall did not match context at learning.
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limitation 1- context effects only occurs when memory is tested in certain ways
Godden and Baddeley replicated their underwater experiment using a recognition test instead of recall. performance was the same in all four conditions whether the environmental contexts for learning and recall matched or not.
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limitation 2- ESP cannot be tested and leads to circular reasoning
when a cue produces successful recall of a word, we assume the cue must have been present at the time of learning. if cues don't result in successful recall, then we assume that the cue was not encoded at the time of learning.
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Card 2

Front

tulving suggested that cues help retrieval if the same cues are present at encoding and at retrieval. the closer the retrieval cu to the original cue, the better the cue works.

Back

encoding specificity principle

Card 3

Front

some cues are linked to the material-to-be-remembered in a meaningful way.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

other cues are also encoded at the time of learning but not in a meaningful way: context-dependent forgetting- when memory retrieval is dependent on an external cue. state-dependent forgetting- when memory retrieval is dependent on an internal cue.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

cues were the contexts where learning and recall took place- on land or underwater. deep-sea divers learned word lists and were later asked to recall them.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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