Explanations for forgetting

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  • Explanations for forgetting
    • Interference
      • Retroactive interference
        • Attempts at learning new info interfere with past learning
        • Muller(1900)
          • Asked 6 students to learn and retrieve nonsense syllables. Remembrance was lower when there was an interference task
      • Proactive interference
        • Previous learning interferes with learning new information
        • Underwood (1950) Participants able to recall older info more accurately. 70% 1 list, 10 or more 20%
      • Similarity
        • Interference occurs when situations are similar.
        • McGeogh+ McDonald. Participants had to learn a list of 10 worlds along with another list, including synonyms, nonsense syllables and then a control group. The synonyms group performed the worst.
      • Evaluation
        • Artificial: most experiments were lab experiments.
        • Only explains some aspects of forgetting.
    • Retrieval failure
      • Encoding specify principle
        • Tulving and Thompson.Memory is most effective when information that was there at coding is there at retrieval.
      • Context dependent
        • Golden and Baddeley. External cues influence recall.
          • 40% drop in non matching variables
      • State dependent
        • State you are in at learning should be the same as retrieval
      • Evaluation
        • Can be applied to real life situations, e.g. the room where students take exams should be the same as the place they learnt the information
        • Retrieval cues don't always work, e.g. complex information
        • There is a correlation between retrieval and cues


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