Experiments for Coding, Capacity and Duration

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  • Created by: xChloeD99
  • Created on: 12-04-16 13:43
What was the aim of Baddeley's study?
to test if the STM or LTM is acoustically coded.
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Briefly explain the procedure of Baddeley's study.
Lab experiment, independent groups, learnt 4 sets of words- acoustically similar, dissimilar and semantically similar and dissimilar, one group recalled immediately (STM) the other 20 minutes later (LTM).
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What were the findings to Baddeley's study?
Immediately- acoustically similar= 55%, acoustically dissimilar= 75% 20 minutes- acoustically similar and dissimilar= 70%, semantically similar= 55%, semantically dissimilar= 85%, This is because we are more likely to mix up the similar words.
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What did Baddeley conclude?
We code acoustically in the STM and semantically in the LTM.
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What was the aim of Jacob's study?
To test the capacity of the STM.
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Briefly explain the procedure of Jacob's study.
Lab exp using repeated measures, serial digit span technique, increased by 1 digit each time, repeated back in order, capacity measured when no longer correct.
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What were the findings of Jacob's study?
average span between 5-9, Miller calls this ''Magic Number 7+-2'', found chunking increased capacity of STM.
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What was the aim of Peterson and Peterson's study?
To investigate how long information can remain in the STM without rehearsal (repeating it).
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Briefly explain the procedure of Peterson and Peterson's study.
Lab exp using repeated measures, 24 students shown triagrams, counted backwards in 3s from a specific 3 digit number till told to stop, after delays of 3,6,9,12,15,18 seconds they had to recall in correct order.
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What did Peterson and Peterson find?
After 3 seconds= 90% were recalled accurately, After 9 seconds= 20% and After 18 seconds= Less than 10%.
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What was the aim of Bahrick's study?
To investigate how long memories can be retained in the LTM.
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Briefly the procedure of Bahrick's study
Field exp, 392 graduates of HighSchool (17-74yrs, left between 3 months and 48 years), tested for recall of former classmates, 3 groups= name recognition, photo recognition and free recall.
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What did Bahrick find?
Free recall- After 15 years= 60%, After 48 years= 30%, Photo and Name Recognition- After 15 years= 90% for both, After 48 years= 80% (NR) and 70% (PR).
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What did Bahrick conclude?
Shows that information is held in the LTM for a life time.
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What are some strengths for Baddeley's study?
Lab experiment, highly controlled setting, establish a cause and effect -Set procedure, highly replicable, easy to check for reliability -Independent groups design, fewer chances of demand characteristics and order effects.
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What are some strengths for Jacob's study?
Lab experiment, highly controlled setting, establish a cause and effect-Set procedure, highly replicable, easy to check for reliability -Repeated measures design, fewer ppts are required and each ppt can be compared to themselves.
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What are some strengths for Peterson and Peterson's study?
Lab experiment, highly controlled setting, establish a cause and effect-Set procedure, highly replicable, easy to check for reliability -Repeated measures design, fewer ppts are required and each ppt can be compared to themselves.
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What are some strengths for Bahrick's study?
Field experiment, high in ecological validity, findings can therefore be generalised -Good sample size, 392 is a large sample, good population validity.
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What are some limitations of Baddeley's study?
Lab experiment, lack ecological validity, cannot be generalised to real life as they are done in an artificial setting, behaviour may not reflect real life Independent groups design, requires more ppts, ppts are not compared against themselves.
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What are some limitations of Jacob's study?
Lab experiment, lack ecological validity, cannot be generalised to real life as they are done in an artificial setting, behaviour may not reflect real life -Repeated measures design, subject to order effects and demand characteristics.
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What are some limitations of Peterson and Peterson's study?
Lab experiment, lack ecological validity, cannot be generalised -Repeated measures design subject to demand characteristics and order effects -24 students, lacks population validity, cannot be generalised to the rest of the population.
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What are some limitations of Bahrick's study?
Field experiment, hard to replicate to check for reliability, no set procedure -All Americans, lacks population validity as the results cannot be generalised outside the American culture.
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Card 2

Front

Briefly explain the procedure of Baddeley's study.

Back

Lab experiment, independent groups, learnt 4 sets of words- acoustically similar, dissimilar and semantically similar and dissimilar, one group recalled immediately (STM) the other 20 minutes later (LTM).

Card 3

Front

What were the findings to Baddeley's study?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What did Baddeley conclude?

Back

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Card 5

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What was the aim of Jacob's study?

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