Memory (facts)

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  • Memory
    • LTM
      • The final stage of the MSM proposed by Atkinson-Shiffrin
      • Duration: Unlimited
      • Capacity: Unlimited
      • Codes: Semantically
      • BAHRICK ET AL: Investigated the duration of the LTM
        • Procedure: Examined 392 uni participants by asking them to match the names of former classmates to pictures in a yearbook.
        • 60% accuracy for matching names and faces after graduation
        • Memories stored in the LTM can last for a last time or at least 47 years (UNLIMITED)
        • STRENGTHS
          • Replicable
          • High Ecological Validity
          • Generalisable
        • WEAKNESS
          • Extraneous variables are not controlled and can effect the results
          • The high emotional significance can not be generalised to a wide population
      • FACTORS AFFECTING DURATION IN LTM
        • DEPTH OF LEARNING
          • How deeply you process/think about the information
        • PATTERNS OF LEARNING
          • Spaced out sessions are better than intensive ones
        • NATURE OF MATERIAL TO BE LEARNED
          • Whether or not we are interested in it or not
    • JACOBS: Find the capacity of the STM. Developed technique to measure digit span
      • Procedure
        • - Gave 4 digits and then asked for recall
          • If this was correct, they were given 5 more digits and so on until the participant could not recall correctly.
      • Found that the mean span was    7  3
    • MILLER: Made observations of everyday practice and found that everything comes in 7s
      • Suggests that the span (capacity) is about 7 items plus or minus 2 (7+/-2)
    • PETERSON + PETERSON: Investigated the duration of STM, and provide evidence for the MSM
      • Procedure
        • -Lab experiment (24 psych participants) had to recall trigrams
          • Found that the duration of the STM is 18 secs.
      • CONCLUSION: STM has a limited duration when rehearsal is prevented. It's information that is lost is due to TRACE DECAY.
      • EVALUATION:--    Low ecological validity.
        • +    Can be replicated as the setting is controlled and has standardised procedures
        • Ethnocentric: Conducted in America with American participants generalisations can not be made.
    • BADDLEY (1966a + 1966b):  Explored the effects of acoustic & semantic coding in the STM and LTM. 1966A Found that we code acoustically in our STM and 1966B found that we code semantically in our LTM
      • Participants were presented with random sequences of 5 words in each of the following categories; Acoustically similar and dis similar words. Semantically similar and dis similar words
        • - +HIgh level of control. Which allows cause and effect. Also replicable
          • Artificial setting with low ecological validity. So generalisations can not be made. Low mundan realism. Also demand characteristics

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