Exchange Surfaces Revision.

  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 22-02-17 12:34
What is gaseous exchange?
The movement of gases across a surface.
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Why do small organisms not need a specialised exchange/transport system?
1)Have large surface area to volume ratio.2)Most of cells very close to surface.3)Low level of activity.4)Can get oxygen and glucose it needs by diffusion.5)Diffusion rate is fast enough to meet demands.
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Why do large organisms need a specialised exchange/transport system?
1)Have a small surface area to volume ratio.2)Most cells deep within body.3)High level of activity.4)Not able to acquire the oxygen and glucose needed by diffusion.5)Diffusion too slow to meet demands.6)Requires heart,lungs,blood vessels and blood.
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What are the 5 labels for the trachea and bronchi?
1)Cartilage.2)Smooth muscle.3)Lumen.4)Elastic fibres.5)Ciliated epithelium with goblet cells.
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LEARN DIAGRAM FOR TRACHEA AND BRONCHI
......
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What is the role of cartilage in the trachea and bronchi?
1)Cartilage plays structural role.2)Holds airways open to prevent collapse under low air pressure.
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What is the role of smooth muscle in the trachea and bronchi?
1)Can contract to constrict airway, making lumen narrower.2)Response to harmful substances in air.
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What is the role of elastic fibres in the trachea and bronchi?
1)Allow airways to recoil back to original size after smooth muscle has finished contracting.2)Helps to expel air.
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Where is squamous epithelium found?
The alveoli.
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What is the function of squamous epithelium?
1)Lining tissue.2)Protective function.3)Short distance between alveolar air and capillary blood.4)Efficient gaseous exchange.
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Where is ciliated epithelium found?
The trachea.
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What is the function of ciliated epithelium?
1)Waft mucus back up to trachea, then throat where it can be swallowed.2)Dirt,bacteria and dust get trapped in mucus (get destroyed by stomach acid).
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Where is glandular tissue (goblet cells) found?
The trachea.
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What is the function of glandular tissues?
1)Secrete mucus (a glycoprotein).2)Dirt,bacteria and dust get trapped in mucus.
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What are alveoli?
Air sacs that provide the site for gaseous exchange.
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What are general features of an efficient exchange surface?
1)Large surface area.2)Short diffusion distance.3)Maintains concentration gradient.4)Moist.
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Do trachea and bronchi contain cartilage?
Yes, both contain cartilage.
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Do trachea and bronchi contain goblet cells?
Yes, both contain goblet cells.
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Do trachea and bronchi contain ciliated epithelium?
Yes, both contain ciliated epithelium.
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Do trachea and bronchi contain smooth muscle?
Yes, both contain smooth muscle.
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Do trachea and bronchi contain squamous epithelium?
No, neither contain squamous epithelium.
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Do trachea and bronchi contain elastic fibres?
Yes, both contain elastic fibres.
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Do bronchioles and alveoli contain cartilage?
No, neither contain cartilage.
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Do bronchioles and alveoli contain goblet cells?
No, neither contain goblet cells.
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Do bronchioles and alveoli contain ciliated epithelium?
Only bronchioles contain ciliated epithelium.
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Do bronchioles and alveoli contain smooth muscle?
Only bronchioles contain smooth muscle.
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Do bronchioles and alveoli contain squamous epithelium?
Only alveoli contain squamous epithelium.
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Do bronchioles and alveoli contain elastic fibres?
Both contain elastic fibres.
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LOOK AT DIAGRAM OF LUNGS AND ALVEOLI.
..
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What is the function of bronchioles?
Large number of pathways for air to enter and leave the lungs.
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What is the function of alveoli?
1)Large surface area for gas exchange,2)Anti-bacterial effect.3)Surfactant lowers surface tension.
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What is the function of alveolar squamous epithelium cells?
Short diffusion path, so rapid diffusion rate.
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What is the function of capillary endothelium walls?
Short diffusion path so rapid diffusion rate.
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What is the function of the capillary network?
Erythrocytes flattened against capillary wall, increases surface area.
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What is the function of capillary blood from the pulmonary artery?
Has a steep diffusion gradient, which is increased during exercise.
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What is the function of alveolar air?
Has a steep diffusion gradient, which increases during exercise.
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What is ventilation?
The process whereby air enters and leaves the lungs.
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What is inspiration?
Inhalation, or breathing in.
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What is expiration?
Exhalation or breathing out.
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Describe the muscle action in the mechanism of inspiration.
1)Intercostal muscles contract.2)Diaphragm muscle contracts,pulling downwards.3)Rib cage moves upwards and outwards.
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Describe the volume changes in the mechanism of inspiration.
Volume of thoracic cavity increases.
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Describe the pressure changes in the mechanism of inspiration.
Air pressure in the thorax decreases.
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Describe the air movement in the mechanism of inspiration.
Moves down a pressure gradient.
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Is inspiration active?
Yes, ATP is required.
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Describe the muscle action in the mechanism of expiration.
1)IExternal ntercostal muscles relax.2)Diaphragm relaxes, recoiling upwards.3)Rib cage moves downwards and inwards.
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Describe the volume changes in the mechanism of expiration.
Volume of thoracic cavity decreases.
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Describe the pressure changes in the mechanism of expiration.
Air pressure in the thorax decreases..
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Describe the air movement in the mechanism of expiration.
Moves out and down a pressure gradient.
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Is expiration passive?
Yes.
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When are the internal intercostal muscles used?
When we force an exhale.
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What is tidal volume?
The volume of air taken into the lungs in one breath at rest. (dm cubed)
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What is vital capacity?
The volume of air taken into the lungs in one breath during exercise/deep breathing. (dm cubed)
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What is residual volume?
The volume of air left in the lungs after fully breathing out. (dm cubed).
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What is reserve volume?
The difference in volume between air breathed in at tidal volume and at vital capacity.
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What is breathing rate?
The number of breaths taken every minute (BPM).
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What is ventilation rate?
The total volume of air breathed into lungs in one minute calculated by breath volume X brething rate. (dmmin).
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How can breathing rate be measured?
Using a spirometer.
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LOOK AT DIAGRAM OF SPIROMETER AND GRAPHS.
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How can ventilation rate at rest be calculated?
Tidal capacity x BPM.
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How can ventilation rate during exercise be calculated?
Vital capacity x BPM.
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What are three features that make gills a good gas exchange surface?
1)Large surface area.2)Short diffusion pathway.3)Maintains concentration gradient.
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What happens to bony fish when they take water into the buccal cavity?
1)Opens its mouth, lowers floor of buccal cavity.2)Volume of buccal cavity increases.3)Water pressure decreases.4)Mouth fills with water.
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What happens to bony fish to move water over gills?
1)Closes its mouth, raises floor of buccal cavity.2)Volume decreases.3)Pressure increases.4)Water leaves operculum and forced over gills.
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What are gills made up of?
Gill filaments (lamellae) that have a large surface area.
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What are the gill filaments made up of?
Secondary lamellae- one cell thick, so short diffusion distance.
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Bony fish have counter current flow, what does this mean?
Water and blood flow in the oppostie direction, this helps to maintain a concentration gradient.
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LOOK AT DIAGRAM OF BONY FISH GAS EXCHANGE.
...
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What are features of an efficient gas exchange system for insects?
1)Large surface area.2)Maintains concentration gradient.3)Short diffusion pathway.
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How do insects achieve a large surface area?
By an extensive network of tubes (tracheoles) that penetrate deep into tissues.
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How do insects achieve a short diffusion distance?
Gases go from tracheoles into tissue fluid, where they can diffuse directly across the plasma membrane.
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LOOK AT DIAGRAM OF INSECT EXCHANGE SYSTEM..
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why do small organisms not need a specialised exchange/transport system?

Back

1)Have large surface area to volume ratio.2)Most of cells very close to surface.3)Low level of activity.4)Can get oxygen and glucose it needs by diffusion.5)Diffusion rate is fast enough to meet demands.

Card 3

Front

Why do large organisms need a specialised exchange/transport system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 5 labels for the trachea and bronchi?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

LEARN DIAGRAM FOR TRACHEA AND BRONCHI

Back

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