Communicable Diseases Revision

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 05-04-17 19:56
What is health?
1)Free from disease/illness.2)Physical, mental and social well being.3)Good nutrition.4)Suitably housed.
1 of 78
What is disease?
`A departure from good health caused by a malfunction of the mind or body.
2 of 78
What is a communicable disease?
1)Diseases which can be passed from one organism to another of the same or different species.
3 of 78
What is a parasite?
1)Lives on or in a host organism and harms host.2)Takes nutrition from host or feeds on host.
4 of 78
What is a pathogen?
Microorganism that causes disease.
5 of 78
What is the benefit to a parasite living in/ on a host?
1)Warmth.2)Protection/safe place.3)Allows transmission/ spread to a new host.
6 of 78
What is the difference between a pathogen and a parasite?
1)Pathogen causes disease.2)Not all parasites cause disease.3)Parasite gains nutrition/energy from the host.4)Pathogen does not gain nutrition/energy from the host.
7 of 78
What are the 4 types of pathogen?
1)Bacteria.2)Fungi.3)Protoctista.4)Viruses.
8 of 78
Describe bacteria.
1)Prokaryotic.2)Single Celled organism.3)Reproduce rapidly by binary fusion (mitosis).4)Cause harm by releasing toxins/toxic waste products.
9 of 78
Describe fungi.
1)Eukaryotic organisms.2)Release digestive enzymes.
10 of 78
Describe Protoctista.
1)Eukaryotic organisms.2)Single celled.3)Enter host cells and feed on contents (parasitic).
11 of 78
Describe a virus.
1)Multiply in host cells.2)Viral DNA inserted into host DNA.3)Host cell transcribes and translates viral proteins and replicates viral DNA.4)Cell bursts, releasing new viral particles that can infect healthy cells.
12 of 78
Name 6 animal diseases.
1)Tuberculosis.2)Bacterial meningitis.3)HIV/AIDS.4)Influenza.5)Athlete's foot.6)Malaria.
13 of 78
What type of pathogen is tuberculosis?
Bacterium.
14 of 78
How is tuberculosis transmitted?
Droplet infection.
15 of 78
How does tuberculosis affect the body?
1)Lungs most often affected.2)Can affect and kill other cells and tissues/
16 of 78
Which organisms are affected by tuberculosis?
Humans and cattle.
17 of 78
How can tuberculosis be prevented/treated?
1)BCG vaccine.2)Antibiotics.3)Screen cattle.4)Pasteurise milk.
18 of 78
How is Meningitis spread?
Bacterium.
19 of 78
How is meningitis transmitted?
1)Sneezing.2)Coughing.3)Kissing.4)Sharing utensils.5)Sharing personal possessions e.g. toothbrush.
20 of 78
Which organisms are affected by meningitis?
Humans.
21 of 78
What are symptoms of meningitis?
Membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord become swollen- may cause brain and nerve damage.
22 of 78
How can meningitis be prevented/treated?
1)Vaccine against some strains.2)Antibiotics.
23 of 78
How is HIV/AIDS spread?
Virus.
24 of 78
How is HIV/AIDS transmitted?
1)Sexual intercourse.2)Sharing contaminated syringes.3)Across placenta/ via contaminated breast milk.4)Contaminated blood.
25 of 78
What is the effect of HIV/AIDS on the body?
1)Attack cells of immune system, which compromises immune response.2)Susceptible to opportunistic infections, e.g. T.B, Pneumonia.
26 of 78
Which organisms are affected by HIV/AIDS?
Humans.
27 of 78
How can HIV/AIDS be treated?
Anti-viral drugs.
28 of 78
What type of pathogen is influenza?
Virus.
29 of 78
How is influenza transmitted?
Droplet infection.
30 of 78
What are symptoms of influenza?
1)Attacks respiratory system.2)Causes muscle pain and headaches.
31 of 78
Which organisms are affected by influenza?
Humans, Poultry, Pigs.
32 of 78
How can influenza be influenza/treated?
1)Annual vaccine.2)Anti-viral drugs.
33 of 78
What type of pathogen is athlete's foot?
Fungi.
34 of 78
How is athlete's foot transmitted?
Contaminated surfaces.
35 of 78
What are the symptoms of athlete's foot?
Itchy between the toes.
36 of 78
Which organisms are affected by athlete's foot?
Humans.
37 of 78
How can athlete's foot be prevented/treated?
1)Anti-fungal medications.2)Clean surfaces.
38 of 78
What type of pathogen is malaria?
Protoctista.
39 of 78
How is malaria transmitted?
Via female anopheles mosquito.
40 of 78
What are symptoms of malaria?
1)Parasite in blood.2)Causes headache and fever.3)May progress to coma and death.
41 of 78
Which organisms are affected by malaria?
Humans.
42 of 78
How can malaria be prevented/treated?
1)Prevent being bitten-insect repellents and nets.2)Kill mosquito's-sterile males,drain ponds.3)Prophylactic anti-malarial drugs (quinine/chloroquine).
43 of 78
Name 4 plant diseases.
1)Black Sigatoka.2)Ring rot.3)Tobacco Mosaic.4)Blight.
44 of 78
What pathogen is Black sigatoka?
Fungus.
45 of 78
How is Black sigatoka transmitted?
Waterbourne and wind.
46 of 78
What are symptoms of black sigatoka?
Leaf spots (reduces yield).
47 of 78
Which organisms are affected by black sigatoka?
Bananas.
48 of 78
What type of pathogen is ring rot?
Bacterium.
49 of 78
What are symptoms of ring rot?
Ring of decay in vascular tissue.
50 of 78
Which organisms are affected by ring rot?
Tomatoes and potatoes,
51 of 78
What type of pathogen is tobacco mosaic?
Virus.
52 of 78
How is tobacco mosaic transmitted?
Leaf to leaf.
53 of 78
What are symptoms of tobacco mosaic?
Mottling and discolouration of leaves.
54 of 78
Which organisms are affected by tobacco mosaic?
Tobacco, tomato.
55 of 78
What type of pathogen is blight?
Mould.
56 of 78
How is blight transmitted?
Soil.
57 of 78
What are symptoms of blight?
Affects leaves and potato tubers.
58 of 78
Which organisms are affected by blight?
Potatoes and tomatoes.
59 of 78
What is direct contact?
Direct physical contact- touching surfaces contaminated with pathogen,exchange of bodily fluids,skin to skin contact, puncture wounds and sharing needles.
60 of 78
What are 4 things transmitted directly?
1)Droplet infection pathogen-sneezing (flu.TB).2)Pathogen with no vector-move from one organism to another.3)Faecal-oral transmission-food or water contaminated(cholera,salmonella).4)Spores-air or water or in soil.(tetanus).
61 of 78
What are 3 things transmitted indirectly?
1)Fungus Ophiostomanova-ulmi causes Dutch Elm transmitted by beetle.2)Protostista, malaria transmitted by female mosquito.3)Pathogen with a vector.
62 of 78
What increases the probability of catching a communicable disease?
1)Overcrowding.2)Poor ventilation.3)Poor health.4)poor diet.5)Homelessness.6)Living with people from places where disease is common.
63 of 78
What are the 4 types of plant defense?
1)Passive physical.2)Passive chemical.3)Active physical.4)Active chemical.
64 of 78
Describe passive physical.
1)A structural component that is present before the infection.2)Cellulose cell wall.3)Waterproof lignin.4)Callose deposited in sieve tubes at end of growing season-occurs annually.5)Stomatal closure.6)Tylose formation.
65 of 78
How does tylose formation help plants?
1)Fills xylem and swells like balloon, can no longer carry water-prevents spreading.2)Contains chemicals toxic to pathogens.
66 of 78
How does callose help plants?
Blocks flow of sieve tubes- prevents spreading.
67 of 78
Describe passive chemical.
A substance that is produced by plant tissues and is present before infection.
68 of 78
Describe active physical.
1)A structural component activated by presence of Pathogen.2)Thickened cellulose cell wall.3)High reactive oxygen,capable of damaging pathogens produced.4)Necrosis.5)Canker.6)Callose.7)Sunken necrotic lesion.
69 of 78
How does callose act as an active physical defenses?
It is deposited between cell wall and cell membrane-strengthens wall and blocks plasmodesmata.
70 of 78
How does necrosis act as an active physical defence?
Deliberate cell suicide- some cells sacrificed to kill pathogen.
71 of 78
How does canker act as an active physical defence?
A sunken necrotic lesion on woody tissue- causes death of cambium.
72 of 78
Describe active chemical defences.
1)Substances produced by plant tissues that are activated by the presence of a pathogen.2)Defensins.2)Alkaloids.3)Phenols.4)Hydrolytic enzymes.5)Terpenoids.
73 of 78
What are defensins?
Proteins rich in amino acid cysteine. Antimicrobial properties and inhibit transport chemicals.
74 of 78
What are Alkaloids?
Found in coffee, insects find coffee bitter to taste.
75 of 78
What are Phenols?
Prevent insect biting.Tannin in bark acts as an antibacterial substance and deters insects from biting.
76 of 78
What are hydrolytic enzymes?
Digestive enzymes that are secreted into the spaces between cells.
77 of 78
What are Terpenoids?
Known as the essential oils-have antifungal properties e.g. menthol
78 of 78

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is disease?

Back

`A departure from good health caused by a malfunction of the mind or body.

Card 3

Front

What is a communicable disease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a parasite?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a pathogen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Communicable Diseases resources »