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Chapter 4: Excretion…read more

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Excretion is the removal of metabolic waste products from the body.
CO2 ­ Produced in all the cells by respiration. Excreted by the lungs
Needs to be removed because it binds with haemoglobin, forming
carbaminohaemoglobin. This decreases the amount of Oxygen that
can be transported.
Lowers pH of blood ­ Can damage tissues/ cells and cause
Respiratory Acidosis
Urea ­ Produced in the liver. Excreted by the kidney.
Body cannot store proteins/ excess amino acids
Contain energy for respiration.
Ammonia is toxic ­ cannot be transported in blood.…read more

Slide 3

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Hepatic Artery ­ Supply liver with oxygenated blood
Hepatic Portal Vein ­ From the intestines. Contains digested food
Hepatic Vein ­ Removes deoxygenated blood
Bile Duct ­ Transports bile to the intestine, and the gall bladder stores
Bile emulsifies fats, separating them out. This produces a larger
surface area, so they are broken down more easily.…read more

Slide 4

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Hepatocytes (liver cells)
· Relatively unspecialised, simple cuboidal
· Many microvilli ­ increase SA:V = increased exchange
· Large number of organelles eg. Mitochondria
Kupffer Cells = Macrophages in liver. Breakdown rbcs, produces
bilirubin excreted in bile…read more

Slide 5

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Channels that carry bile Channels that carry blood between
to the intestines the rows of hepatocytes
This is a lobule ­
smaller section of
each lobe. Branch
of hepatic vein in
the middle of each
Lobe- Liver in
2 (r and l)…read more

Slide 6

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The Ornithine Cycle
· Transamination ­ In liver. Excess AAs converted into needed AAs.
· Amino part broken down and excreted. Keto Acid stored as fat
· Occurs in the cytoplasm and partly in the mitochondria (requires
H 20
CITRULLINE Overall equation:
Ammonia + Carbon Dioxide
= Urea + Water
H 20…read more

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