Cell Specialisation Revision.

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  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 21-02-17 20:40
What is a stem cell?
A cell that is unspecialsied and capable of division by mitosis, it can specialise/differentiate to become other cell types.
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What is differentiation?
The development and changes seen in cells as they mature to form specialised cells.This is achieved by switching on and off relevant genes.
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What three things can stem cells be classified as?
1)Multipotent.2)Totipotent.3)Pluripotent.
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What is a multipotent stem cell?
Adult stem cells found in bone marrow and from umbilical cord blood, Only able to differentiate into its own cell type.
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What is a totipotent stem cell?
Embryonic stem cells from an 8 cell embryo. They can differentiate into any type of cell.
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What is a pluripotent stem cell?
From inner cell mass of an embryo (blastocyst). Can differentiate into most types of cell, but not embryonic stem cells.
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Where are plant stem cells found?
In meristem systems .
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What do stem cells in the cambium differentiate to?
Xylem and Phloem.
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What are two key qualities of unspecialised cells?
1)Self renewal-they can continuously divide and replicate by mitosis.2)Polency-have capability to differentiate into specialised cell types.
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List some of the diseases that could potentially be treated using stem cells.
1)Heart Disease.2)Type 1 diabetes.3)Parkinson's.4)Alzheimer's.5)Macular degeneration.6)Spinal injuries.
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What happens to cells that are destined to become erythocytes (Red Blood Cells).?
1)Lose their nucleus,mitochondria,golgi body and RER.2)Packed full of haemoglobin.3)Shape changes to biconcave.4)Function is to transport oxygen form lungs to tissues.
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What happens to cells that are destined to be neutrophils (White Blood Cell)?
1)Retain their nucleus.2)Cytoplasm contains lysosomes and appears granular.3)Function to ingest invading microorganisms and destroy them using hydrolytic enzymes.
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What is an erythrocyte and what is its function?
1)Red Blood Cell.2)Carry oxygen in the blood, contains haemoglobin to transport oxygen to tissues.
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How does the structure of an erythrocyte aid its function?
1)Iron-oxygen binds to iron ions.2)Thin outer membrane-short diffusion distance.3)Biconcave disc shape-increases surface area.4)Flexible membrane framework-allows red blood cells to go through narrow capillaries.5)No nucleus-more haemoglobin.
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What is a disadvantage of Red Blood Cells?
1)Limits life span to around 120 days.2)Transports some Carbon Dioxide from tissues to lungs.
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What is a neutrophil and what is its function?
1)White blood cells.2)Specialised for defence against disease.
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How does the structure of neutrophils aid their function?
1)Flexible shape-allows phagocytosis of foreign bodies.2)Migrates to and form tissues-through capillary endothelium.3)Multi lobed nucleus-allows flexibility.4)Lysosomes-hydrolytic enzymes to break down particles.(Continued on next card)
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How does the structure of neutrophils aid their function?
5)Lots of RER- for protein synthesis.6)Granular-granules contain hydrolytic enzymes.7)Receptor sites-on cell surface membrane for attachment to cells and pathogens.
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What is a sperm cell and what is its function?
1)Male gamete.2)Specialised to fertilise female gametes.
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What is fertilisation?
Fusion of male and female gamete to form a zygote.
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How does the structure of a sperm cell aid its function?
1)Half number of chromosomes-to fill role of gamete.2)Streamline-reduce resistance.3)Head contains DNA and a lysosome(acrosome)4)Acrosome-hydrolytic enzymes that digest egg cell membrane.5)Receptors-bind to egg cell.6)Flagellum-propel cell.7)ATP.
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What is the function of a leaf palisade mesophyll cell?
Specialised to carry out photosynthesis.
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How does the structure of leaf palisade mesophyll cells aid their function?
1)Lot of chloroplasts-chlorophyll.2)Converts light to chemical energy.3)Regular shape,close together-maximum absorption of light.4)Thin wall-rapid diffusion.5)Chloroplasts move-maximum light absorbed.6)Vacuole-maintain turgidity.7)Cell wall-protects.
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What is the function of a root hair cell?
Specialised for absorbing water by osmosis and minerals by active transport and facilitated diffusion.
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How does the structure of root hair cells aid their function?
1)Larger surface area-efficient absorption of water by osmosis.2)Minerals absorbed by active transport-against conc. gradient.3)Cell wall thin and permeable-reduces diffusion distance.4)Lots of mitochondria-provide ATP for active transport.
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What is the function of guard cells?
Specialised to open and close leaf pores (stomata), used for gas exchange and transpiration.
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How does the structure of guard cells aid their function?
1)Regulate size of leaf pore-allow entry and exit of gases.2)Change shape easily.3)Swell when vacuole full-become turgid.4)Mitochondria-ATP for active transport.5)Thin outer walls-stretch.6)Thick inner walls-bend.7)Flaccid-inner walls close stomata.
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What is a tissue?
A collection/group of specialised cells of one or more types, working together with a common function.
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What is an organ?
A collection of different types of tissues, working together with a common function.
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Describe how cells are organised in multicellular organisms.
1)Cells differentiate and become specialised.2)Group of cells form tissues.3)Groups of tissues form organs.4)Groups of organs form organ systems.
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What is the function of epithelial?
Forms layers and linings.
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What is the function of connective tissue?
Holds structures together and provides support.
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What is the function of muscle tissue?
Consists of cells specialised to contract and move certain parts of the body.
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What is the function of nervous tissue?
Converts stimuli into electrical impulses and conducts these electrical impulses.
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What are two types of animal epithelial tissue?
1)Squamous epithelial tissue.2)Ciliated epithelial tissue.
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Describe squamous epithelial tissue.
1)Flattened, thin cells that form smooth,flat surface.2)Ideal for lining tubes.3)Good for forming walls of exchange surfaces,such as alveoli.4)Short diffusion pathway.5)Held by basement membrane, which is made of glycoproteins and collagen.
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Describe ciliated epithelial tissue.
1)Long,column-shaped cells, form inner surface of some tubes.2)Surface exposed to lumen is ciliated.3)Cilia move in synchronised rhythm and waft mucus over tissue surface.4)Mucus produced and secreted by goblet cells.
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Describe cartilage.
1)Connective tissue,may be structural e.g. ear, nose.2)Can also be used as a shock absorber to reduce friction between bones.3)Firm,flexible,smooth surface.4)Composed of chondrocyte cells in extracellular matrix that contains elastin and collagen.
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What can muscle cells do?
Can shorten or contract.
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What are the three types of muscle cell?
1)Skeletal-attached to bones,contraction brings about movement.2)Cardiac-heart muscle cells,contraction forces blood through heart and blood vessels.3)Smooth-found in walls alimentary canal, contraction causes peristalsis and moves food through gut.
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Describe skeletal muscle.
1)Comprised of muscle fibres and connective tissue.2)Rich blood supply.3)Muscle fibres contain myofibrils made of proteins actin and myosin.
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Where does xylem and phloem come from?
Dividing meristem cells located in vascular cambium.2)Meristem cells differentiate to form different kinds of cells in transport tissues.
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Describe xylem cells.
1)Consists of xylem vessels with parenchyma cells and cell fibres.2)Divide and differentiate to produce long cells.3)Walls become water proofed and reinforced with lignin.4)This kills cell contents.5)End walls break down, forming a long, column.
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Describe phloem cells.
1)Phloem consists of sieve tube elements.2)When meristem divide, long cells formed.3)End walls don't break down but become perforated end walls-sieve plates.4)Companion cells metabolically active-used to transport products of photosynthesis.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The development and changes seen in cells as they mature to form specialised cells.This is achieved by switching on and off relevant genes.

Back

What is differentiation?

Card 3

Front

1)Multipotent.2)Totipotent.3)Pluripotent.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Adult stem cells found in bone marrow and from umbilical cord blood, Only able to differentiate into its own cell type.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Embryonic stem cells from an 8 cell embryo. They can differentiate into any type of cell.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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