ENVS2 AQA the hydrosphere

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  • Created by: rosie25
  • Created on: 28-03-14 13:10
What are the main properties of water?
Changes of state in a narrow temp range, anamolous expansion, solvent properties and high heat capacity
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What is the hydrological cycle driven by and what happens?
Solar power. Warms water, making it evaporate and rise, converted to GPE. Then into kinetic as it falls to earth and flows towards sea. Solar energy drives evaporation and transpiration
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What is residence time and what can it help with?
Average length of time that a molecule remains in reservoir. Can help with sustainable management.
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What is the equation for residence time?
RT=Vol/average transfer rate in and out of reservoir
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What is the input in the cycle?
Precipitation
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What are the throughflows in the cycle?
Interception (precipitation that evaporates back to atmosphere), Infiltration (flow of water through ground to rocks), Percolation (flow through spaces in soil/rock), Ground water flow (movement of water through pore spaces in rock)
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What are the main outputs in the cycle?
Evaporation, transpiration, river channel discharge.
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How do humans impact the cycle?
Change in temp=more precipitation, deforestation=decreases inflitration, soil compaction=increases percolation. Vegetation changes=decrease transpiration
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What are the 4 main things that change the demand for water?
Changes in attitude, industrialisation, change in living standards, change in population size
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What are the water quality requirements?
Turbidity, pH, calcium content, pesticide concentration, heavy metal concentration, dissolved o2, chlorine retention, e. coli
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What are some abstractive uses of water?
Domestic, industrial, agricultural
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What are some non-abstractive uses of water?
Energy-HEP, transport, recration, conservation-wetlands
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What is the main conflict of water use?
Abstraction problems, other user groups may threaten water supplies.
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How can more efficient use be acheived?
Metering-people are more careful, low water-use appliances, recycling grey water for plants & toilets
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How can better distribution of water be acheived?
Reducing distribution losses-fixing pipes etc, inter-basin transfer
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How can the availability of water be increased?
Increased abstraction, catchment management, aquifer recharge during periods of surpless water
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How is a rivers usefulness determined?
Total annual flow, fluctuations, level of contaminents and polluants
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How is the usefulness of a river determined?
Topography-3d shape, geology-rock beneath impermeable and strong, catchment area, water supply-regular, existing land use shouldn't be important, pollution risk, sedimentation-reduces volume it can hold, infranstructure-building etc costs money.
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What are the 3 main environmental effects of reservoirs?
Habitat change-destroys but creates new ones, changes in river flow, sedimentation
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What is an aquifer?
A layer of rock that holds water, which is exploited for its resources.
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What are the main features of aquifers?
Porosity-measure of proportion of rocks vol that is space and can hold water, permeability- measure of ease with which fluids may flow through rock, suitable geological structures-rock below impermeable
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What are the 5 consequences of overuse of aquifers?
Reduced supplies, subsidence, changes in surface hydrology, ecological impacts, sea water incursion
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What are the 8 steps for freshwater treatment, explain each one?
Screens, sedimentation, aeration, flocculation, filtration, activated carbon filters, sterilisation, fluoridation
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What are the 2 ways of desalinating sea water?
Reverse osmosis-saline water filtered at high pressure then freshwater collected. Distillation-water boiled . Steam produced is condensed and collected.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the hydrological cycle driven by and what happens?

Back

Solar power. Warms water, making it evaporate and rise, converted to GPE. Then into kinetic as it falls to earth and flows towards sea. Solar energy drives evaporation and transpiration

Card 3

Front

What is residence time and what can it help with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the equation for residence time?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the input in the cycle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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