Environmental effects and group differences in intelligence

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 30-04-16 19:44
Children born one day apart- different school years
Higher year= higher IQ
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Long summer
Drop in IQ
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Head Start Project (USA)
Toddlers in deprived families- short term gains, disappeared later BUT less likely to drop out and more likely to go into higher education
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Abecedarian Project
More intensive, tested up to 21yrs- no long term gains
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Within family models- Passive model
50% of intelligence due to genetics
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Child effects model
Child intelligent due to genes- child's intelligence causes parents to be intelligent towards child
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Parents effects model
Child shows some intelligence- parents teach new things/ encouragement
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Child driven Effects
Children adopt behaviour due to discouragement/ encouragement of parents
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SES of family- Class I-V
I= Professional/ II= Managerial or technical/ III= Skilled worker/ IV= Partly skilled worker/ V= Unskilled
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Correlation of IQ and SES
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Duyme et al- adoption study
Adopted age 4-6 and tested at 13.5- higher SES= higher IQ
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Big family
Lower IQ r=-.3
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Low IQ parent= more kids
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Birth order
Later children= lower IQ
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Admixture hypothesis
Need to take parental intelligence, SES, ethnicity, income etc into account- have to test within families rather than between
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Swedish conscripts- birth order
Negative relationship between birth order and intelligence- 6 year gap eliminates effect
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Jensen- Maternal resources depletion theory
Each pregnancy depletes mother's immune system
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Norwegian conscripts
Effects eliminated if sibling died
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Outside family effects- Harris
Socialization more important than family
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Context specific socialisation
Peer relationships more important as you get older
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Serpell et al
Western intelligence different to other intelligence
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ability to distract self and think abstractly- Western thinking comes from Greek philosophers- idea of higher plain of thought/ important during rapid societal and industrial change
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Define, measure and score-
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Seeing abstract thoughts as concrete
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Intelligence as a result of natural selection
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Positive Eugenics/ Negative Eugenics
Encourage reproduction with desired traits/ discourage or inhibit reproduction
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Francis Galton
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Brain size correlation with intelligence
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Female/ male
r=.4/ r=.34
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grey matter and white matter
correlation with intelligence
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Women have smaller brains
Men more smarter
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Male advantage in Raven's progressive matrices test
non-verbal abstract reasoning- related to fluid intelligence
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Male (general)/ Male student score on raven's
5 points/ 4.6 points
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Matched sibling pairs= matched SES
Male g= 8.66/ Female QI= 8.45
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Larger sample
Male IQ= 101.5/ Female IQ= 99.7
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More variation in
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Science, arithmetic, mechanical comprehension, electronics information
Males are better
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Word knowledge/ Paragraph comprehension/ numerical operations/ coding speed
Females better
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key difference
F= verbal ability/ M= spatial ability
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Males look at wider environments- main foragers/ find mates/ warfare
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No sex difference in number- females have smaller more densely packed
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Gonadal hormones
Testosterone and Estradiol play roll in spatial intelligence
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Men and women give directions differently
Men use distances, women use landmarks
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Choi and Silverman
Using distances as measurement correlates with testosterone levels
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Self fulfilling prophecies
fulfilling stereotypes
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Comparing male and female students invalid
More men drop out
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Countries with gender equality
no differences in intelligence
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racial differences? Bigger variation
Within groups than between
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US intelligence order
Asian/ White/ Hispanic/ Black
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No biological concept for race
Race is just a concept
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3 main pieces of evidence
Heritability of g/ reaction time correlating with g/ brain size differences
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Flynn affect
Average IQ slowly increasing
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Environmental complexity theory
increasing complexity of environment
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Dickens and Flynn
In 30 years black people narrowed gap by 5.5 points
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Brain size correlation
0.2= small
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Interracial adoption of black kids/ Transracial
IQ= 103.6/ 117- white= higher SES
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Fagan and Holland
Ability to learn new vocab- white= more pre-existing vocab/ similar levels of improvement
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Skuy et al
White and black south african uni students trained on Raven's test- Black= training increased by 9 points/ white= stayed same but still higher
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Stereotype threat- women perform worse than men in maths test when
told it identified sex differences
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Black students perform worse if
Race is primed
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Card 2


Long summer


Drop in IQ

Card 3


Head Start Project (USA)


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Card 4


Abecedarian Project


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Card 5


Within family models- Passive model


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