Enquiry question 1 Flashcards

What happens on the nearshore of the littoral zone?
Intense human activity- fishing, surfing, sailing water-skiing etc.
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What is the offshore of the littoral zone?
Where the base of the wave first encounters friction with the sea bed.
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Why is it called the littoral 'ZONE'?
It is constantly changing due to dynamic interaction between marine and sub-aerial processes, therefore it cannot be referred to as a line
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In what different ways can coasts be classified?
In terms of geology, sea level rise and fall, and land level rise and fall
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What is happening at an emerging coast?
Sea levels are falling relative to the land as it rises upwards e.g. due to tectonic uplift
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What is the tidal range for: Microtidal, Mesotidal and Macrotidal coasts?
Micro- 0-2m. Meso- 2-4m. Macro- 4m+.
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How can human activity disrupt the dynamic equilibrium of a coastline?
Hard engineering- protects one area- but this causes erosion rates to increase in other areas. Land use- vegetation clearing e.g. for agriculture, natural defense is reduced resulting in more erosion. Dredging to close to the shore.
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Give 3 examples of discordant coasts
West cork coast- Ireland. Purbeck's eastern coast. Pembrokeshire, Wales
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Give three examples of concordant coasts
Areas of the Dorset coast e.g. near Lulworth Cove (southern Purbeck). Dalmatia, Croatia. Eastern coast of Adriatic sea
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Give three examples of famous landforms on the pembrokeshire coast
1) Great Orme's head 2) Colwyn Bay 3) Holyhead
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What is happening to St Anne's Head?
It is now eroding rapidly as it is more exposed due to the large bay (St Brides) adjacent to it
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How are Dalmatian coasts formed?
Formed due to a rise in sea level. Valleys and rivers with run parallel to the coast remain above the surface of the sea when valleys flood, leaving offshore islands
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How are Haff coasts formed?
They form in low-energy environments where there is deposition. Large spits are formed parallel to the coast with lagoons forming behind them
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Describe the geology of the coast of Dalamtia.
Mainly limestone which has been folded due to tectonic activity forming anticlines and synclines
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Give an example of a Dalmatian coastline other than Dalmatia
the Southern Chilean coastline
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Give two examples of Haff coastlines and their associated lagoons
1)Baltic Sea coastline-Poland (lagoon=Vistula Haff) 2) Outer Banks, North Carolina (lagoon=Pamlico sound)
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What is lithology?
The physical characteristics of the rock ie-strata, bedding planes, joints, folds, faults, dip
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How is an angle of dip produced?
Due to tectonic activity
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What are the current trends in sea level rise since 1993?
They have been rising by about 3mm per year
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Why are metamorphic rocks more vulnerable to erosion than igneous rocks?
Many metapmorphic rocks exhibit foliation where crystals are all orientated in the same direction producing weakness, whilst igneous rocks are made up of interlocking crystals. Metamorphic rocks=folded/heavily fractured but igneous are not
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Why are limestone and sandstone more resistant to erosion than other sedimentary rocks?
Limestone is crystalline and ancient sandstones have been compressed and compacted over hundreds of millions of years.
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Give an example of a permeable rock
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Why is permeability important? (3 reasons)
1) ground water flow removes cement that binds sediment in the rock together. 2) creates high pore water pressure reducing stability 3) can run down the cliff face causing surface run off erosion
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What is the pore water pressure?
The pressure water experiences at a given point below the water table due to the weight of water above it.
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What is the name given to the type of plant found at salt marshes?
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What is the name given to the type of plant found at salt marshes?
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Name the different types of sand dune starting from those closest to the shoreline
Embryo dunes, Fore dunes, Yellow dunes, Grey dunes
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What type of vegetation would you find on the fore dunes?
Sea couch grass, sea rocket or sea kale
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Name some pioneer species found in salt marsh environments
Blue-green algae, wrack, Gutweed, eel grass
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What is the climax vegetation found at a salt marsh
Rush, Sedge, Red fescue grass
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What is the name given to a sand dune ecosystem?
A psammosere
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What is humus?
A dark sludgy nutrient-rich material made of decomposed leaves and other plant material. They help other plants to colonise at the salt marsh
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Explain why soil conditions will vary between the fore dunes and the grey dunes.
Soils at fore dune are basically sand-severe environmental conditions-little humus added as few roots to hold it in place. Grey dune-more sheltered-plants survive-add humus-soil retains more moisture- larger and more varied plants grow.
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Describe another environmental challenge that salt marsh plants have to adapt to as well as being salt tolerant.
They must be able to tolerate anaerobic conditions/lack of oxygen due to being submerged in the sea twice a day for several hours.
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How do sand dunes protect and influence the coast?
first line of defence against coastal storms+beach erosion. Absorb the impact of a storm surge waves preventing/delaying flooding/ damage inland. Are sand storage areas that supply sand to eroded beaches during storms and buffer wind blown spray
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the offshore of the littoral zone?


Where the base of the wave first encounters friction with the sea bed.

Card 3


Why is it called the littoral 'ZONE'?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


In what different ways can coasts be classified?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is happening at an emerging coast?


Preview of the front of card 5
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