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  • Created by: Jade19
  • Created on: 04-01-16 17:48
What are the four units are DNA?
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What units are paired together?
A-T, C-G
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How does RNA differ from DNA?
RNA is single stranded, Thymine is replaced for Uracil, RNA is smaller than DNA, it comes in 3 different forms; ribosomal, transfer and messenger.
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What is ribosomal RNA?
It is involved with the formation of ribosomes and is therefore important as the site of protein synthesis in a cell.
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What is transfer RNA?
is a clover leaf shaped molecule and is up to 15% of the total RNA in the cell. It is involved in carrying the amino acids through the cytoplasm to their correct places in a growing polypeptide chain.
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What is messenger RNA?
It forms in the nucleus and is used to communicate the genetic code in the allele to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
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Who were Watson and Crick?
They put forward their model for the structure of DNA. This work was based on the previous research carried out by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins into the X-ray diffraction patterns of crystalline DNA.
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What is a nucleotide made up of?
A phosphate, sugar(deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base(A,G,C,T).
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What is a macromolecule?
a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
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How are the nucleotides arranged?
In two chains, which coil into a spiral shape called a double helix?
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What is the sugar-phosphate-sugar bond called?
A phosphodiester bond.
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What is a polynucleotide?
A linear polymer whose molecule is composed of many nucleotide units, constituting a section of a nucleic acid molecule.
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How do nucleotides form a chain to become a polynucleotide?
A condensation reaction.
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What bond holds the bases together?
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What are the Purine bases?
Adenine and Guanine.
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What are the Pyrimidines?
Thymine, Uracil and Cytosine.
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What is the difference between purine bases and Pyrimidines?
Pyrimidines have a single ring structure, Purine bases has a double ring structure
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Who were Meselsohn and Stahl?
They came up with the hypothesis for semi conservative replication of DNA?
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What is the semi conservative hypothesis?
The parent DNA molecule separates into its two component strands, each of which acts as a template for the formation of a new complementary strand. The two daughter molecules therefore contain half the parent DNA and half new DNA.
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How is the process of DNA replicated started?
One strand in the DNA duplex is taken by the enzyme DNA topoisomerase, allowing part of the molecule to unravel to form a replication fork
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What splits the two strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds?
DNA Helicase.
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What is DNA polymerase's function?
It moves along the exposed bases sequences, creating a new complementary strand as it goes. DNA polymerase reads the exposed code from the 3' to the 5' end and therefore assembles the new strand from the 5' to the 3'.
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What does DNA polymerase follow?
RNA polymerase enzyme.
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Wht does the RNA polymerase do?
Constructs an RNA primer to guide the action of the DNA polymerase.
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What joins the DNA segments back together?
DNA Ligase.
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What stage in the cell cycle does the reforming of the double helix occur?
S phase
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What units are paired together?


A-T, C-G

Card 3


How does RNA differ from DNA?


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Card 4


What is ribosomal RNA?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is transfer RNA?


Preview of the front of card 5
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