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Symptoms of uni polar...
depressed mood, short temper, poor memory, low libido and sleep disturbances
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symptoms of Bipolar...
euphoria, lack of guilt, irrational decision making, delusional ideas, paranoia, little sleep and high work activity
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Genetic explanations
multi-gene action not single-gene, risk is double if a family member suffers and lack of serotonin/ the serotonin transporter gene
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Neurochemical explanations
serotonin and norepinephrine found in limbic system that controls sleep, appetite and emotions. low levels=depression high levels=mania. unipolar suffers have high levels of cortisol (this helps respond to stress)
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Neuroanatomical explanations
abnormalities of the brain (pre-frontal cortex, hippocampus-memory and the amygdala- mood) unsure if this is cause or effect
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Psychodynamic explanations...
Grief and dependency in childhood, loss in childhood makes the child feel abandoned so when an adult experiences loss the regress to the oral stage
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how can feelings of inadequacy lead to depression?
if a child has critical parents and feel like they don't meet their expectations in adulthood they will experience depression because they will set themselves unrealistic goals which when they don't reach them they will feel depressed and unmotivated
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Psychodynamic explanation of mania
During the depressive stage the super ego is most dominant making the ego feel guilty, when the ego tries to control this it overreacts and the manic phase begins.
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How can Bowlby's attachment theory be linked to depression?
poor attachments in childhood is thought to be a cause of adulthood depression, the person will always seek approval from other people to make up for the rejection
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How usual are psychodynamic theories for explaining depression?
the early theories of Freud and Abraham led to the development of interpersonal theory which is an effective theory, but there is very little scientific evidence even though Bowlby's work supports the psychodyanic theories and is based is empirical
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what is learned helplessness?
uncontrollable negative events make a person think they aren't in control of what happens to them and this can lead to depression because they think they are helpless. they also think they are responsible for everything. Seligman's dogs supports this
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what is internal attribution theory?
how people make causes for events, internal attribution: "it's my fault" stable attribution: "it will always be like this" Global attribution: "this is how it is with every relationship"
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prevent serotonin from being taken back into the neuron, increasing neurotransmitter activity. 60% of suffers recover but it can take 6-8 weeks for the tablets to start working. side effects can include; a dry mouth,excessive sweating,blurred vision
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI's)
stop the breakdown of monoamine oxidase, they can cause weight gain, interaction with certain foods, liver damage and high blood pressure. they don't work straight away
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Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's)
most common; prozac. serotonin is active for longer in the synapse, they are fast acting but can increase anxiety and the risk of suicide, can't treat mania
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a seizure is induced from electric shocks, 6-12 seizures per session and each lasts for 1 min. 50% of suffers find it helpful but relapse rates are high-80%. multiple treatments needed and side effects include; memory loss, fear of treatment
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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
Changes the cognitive triad, increases confidence while challenging negative thoughts, normally 20 sessions over a 10 week period, 60-70% success rate, cost effective and highly effective in combination with drug therapy, unsuccessful for bipolar
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Drug treatment for bipolar depression..
Lithium, which returns serotonin and dopamine back to normal levels, each suffer has to be monitored to see if they are taking the right amount, many people stop their medication which makes their symptoms come back, can cause kidney dysfunction
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Psychodynamic talking therapy...
3 sessions a week that involve free association and analysis for childhood memories. extreme commitment is needed for success and bipolar can't be treated this way.
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symptoms of Bipolar...


euphoria, lack of guilt, irrational decision making, delusional ideas, paranoia, little sleep and high work activity

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Genetic explanations


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Neurochemical explanations


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Neuroanatomical explanations


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