What did Rohner suggest was meant by Culture?
Highly variable systems of meaning that are learnt and shared by people from one generation to the net in an identifiable population
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How is the group norms and values expressed?
National, racial and ethnic group
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Why is culture important?
Human behaviour does not exist in a cultural vaccum
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What does culture provide?
A context for understanding in human development and behaviour
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Henrich, Heine and Norenzayan (2010)
96% of samples in psychology come from countries representing only 12% of the world's population
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A randomly selected American UG is how many more times more likely to be a ps than a randomly selected person from a country outside the west?
4000 x
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What is a WEIRD sample?
Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic
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What did Henrich et al (2010) assumed?
There is little variation across populations and that standard subjects are representative of the species
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what did Hofstede do?
Questionnaire to 117000 managers of multinational companies in 40 countries
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What did factor analysis reveal?
Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity - feminity, indivudalism-collectivism and time perspective
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What i GB?
Individualistic and concerned with material success
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What is Denmark?
Individualistic and caring/egalitarian
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What is Hong Kong?
Accepting of power hierarchies and collectivistic
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What is independent self-construal?
Person's identity is seen as a product of stable internal traits and is sepatate and unique from others
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What is interdependent self-construal?
Person's identity is intertwined with others and defined by those relationships
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What are women more likely to do?
Define themselves in terms of their relationships
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What is relational self-construal?
individual difference in the extent to which people define themselves in reference to close personal relationships (e.g., spouse/close friend)
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How do you measure self construal?
Questionnairs: 12 items on IndSC and 12 items on interSC likert scale: 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree)
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What is the twenty statements task
Participants complete 20 sentence stems that start with: I am
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What are statements then coded into ?
IndSc, InterSC and RelSC
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What does the number of statements in each category served as?
The measure of self construal
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What is Priming self construal?
Many different priming tasks
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Trafimow, Triandis and Goto asked people what?
To think of what makes them different from their friends and family (IndSC prime) or what makes them similar to their friends and family (InterSC prime)
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What does it assume?
People in all cultures have both the IndSC and InterSC
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What does it allow?
Cause-effect relationships to be investigated
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What is Masuda and Nisbett's link?
Between a self construal and attention to visual scenes
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What as found?
East Asian individuals process holistically - perception of objects is bound to the social context, Westernerrs process the focal object
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What is assumed to stem from?
Differences in Ancient greek vs ancient chinese societies
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Nisbett and Masuda: What did pps see?
45 original objects & 45 novel objects. • The background was manipulated: (a) original (b) none (c) novel
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What did pps indicate?
whether they had seen the object (Yes/No). • DV: number correctly recalled.
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What was found?
• 2 (culture) X 3 (background) ANOVA revealed no interaction, but planned comparisons found on “previously seen objects”.
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What did Masuda and Nisbett do?
Replicate findings in experiment 2 with real wildlife photos and reaction time data
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What did Japanese participants do?
Made more errors with previously seen objects on novel backgrounds
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What did Japanese made more?
Attentive to social context and relationships between objects
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Cross cultural differences in cognitive processing may what?
Differentially advantageous
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What do some tasks require?
Absolute judgements
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What do some tasks require?
relative judgements
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Kitayama et al
20 participants in USA & 20 in Japan. • 5 combinations of FLT: x2 test frame > original; x2 test frame < original; x1 test fame & original = same size.
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How many combinations given?
In a counterbalanced order, DV: Mean error across FLT trials
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Kitayama et al experiment 2
Are these cognitive processing styles malleable or fixed? • Japanese participants (in Japan or studying in US) & American participants (in US or studying abroad in Japan)
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How many combinations were given?
Counterbalanced order, DV: mean error across flt trials
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Culture and attribution: Morris and Peng
predicted cross-cultural differences in attribution would occur in social situations due to differences in socialization
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What was study one?
100 Chinese & 100 American school children
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What did participants do?
• Participants watched animated displays of social events (fish swimming) and physical events (football moving).
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What DVs were there?
Ratings of the extent to which the objects movement was influenced by internal and external factors
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What was found?
No differences between chinese and american students on causal attribution of physical events in any display set
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What was study 2?
American newspaper made more dispositional attributions for a mass shooting, whereas Chinese newspaper made more situational attributions
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What was study 3?
American participants judged dispositional factors more likely as the causes for the mass shooting, whereas situational factors were judged more likely for Chinese participants
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Choi and Nisbett study
78 American & 94 Korean participants read a pro-capital punishment essay allegedly written by another student
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What was the random assigment groups?
No choice condition • Exposure condition • Exposure & arguments condition
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What was the DV?
DV = rated the extent to which the essay corresponded to the student’s real attitude (1-7 scale).
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What was found?
Dispositionalism is a mode of thinking that is seen across cultures. • The attenuation of the correspondence bias in East Asian cultures is due stronger situationalism
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What did Oyserman, Coon and KemmelMeier suggest?
(2002) meta-analysis of IND-COL research revealed:
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What are differences?
Often assumed without measurement: over-reliance on correlational sutdies
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is there diversity?
measures used to measure the same DV • Lack of replication studies
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What have Cross et al identified?
Two factor structure (IndSC & InterSC) is not a good fit
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What is the face validity?
Of some items questionable 'I value being in good health above everything;
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What did Cross identify?
• Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities are adequate at best.
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what is the issue with the twenty statements test?
• Researchers rarely provide a detailed description of their coding scheme. • Researchers differ in their definition (& hence coding) of InterSC and RelSC.
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What did Gungor et al argue?
argued that while all interdependent cultures value interpersonal connectedness, the nature of the connection differs between face and honour cultures
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What is keeping face cultures?
respecting others by observing norms dictated by one’s position in the social hierarchy.
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What is honour cultures?
pride that is based on social image, reputation and others’ evaluation.
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What did Gungor measure?
measured 2 forms of interpersonal agency - conformity & relatedness - in 163 Japanese and 172 Turkish students.
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What did Japanese participants describe?
their agency more in terms of conformity than Turkish participants, whereas Turkish participants described their agency more in terms of relatedness.
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What are the three different types of culture?
Religion • SES • Region within a country
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How is the group norms and values expressed?


National, racial and ethnic group

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Why is culture important?


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What does culture provide?


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Henrich, Heine and Norenzayan (2010)


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