Crime and Deviance Sociologists

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Pilkington
OCS tells us more about increases in victims reporting crime rather than actual increases in crime itself e.g. general public have grown more intolerant of property crime because we are increasingly materialistic.
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Holdaway
Racism in the police due to "canteen culture". Young people fit police stereotypes.
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Young (think young men join the military)
Military style police presence in ethnic-minority areas lead to more confrontation.
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Box (think putting M/C crimes in a box)
OCS divert attention from M/C crimes.
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Hood
When black youths are up for the same crime as white youths they are 17% more likely to get a prison sentence.
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Durkheim
Functions of crime. Crime is a result of moral confusion and anomie derived from modern life.
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Merton
Individuals experience strain between their goals and the blocked legitimate means and so responds; conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion.
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A. Cohen
W/C boys denied status and experience a form of anomie "status frustration" so they join subcultures to gain status and respect.
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Willis
Qualifications not neccessary for W/C professions.
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Miller
W/C subcultures have focal concerns - give meanings to their lives other than work.
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Cloward and Ohlin
Crime is committed on the basis of the illegitimate opportunity structure available in a certain area.
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Matza
Minority of youths become delinquents, some drift out of delinquency in adulthood and may be over-represented (targets of police).
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Shaw and McKay
Chicago, zones of transition - social disorganisation caused by instability in community and cultural transmission - maintaining criminality.
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Baldwin and Bottoms (think bald bottoms)!
Blame tipping, anti-social behaviour, respectable people move, relatives of those responsible move in, creating more crime.
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Hobbs
Night time economy - most crime fuelled by drugs and alcohol when people go out in Manchester on a Fri and Sat night.
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Althusser
Law = ideological state apparatus (benefits those in power).
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Croall
White collar crime = invisible, complex, has indirect victimisation and are not always illegal!
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Hall (think you'll run out of the hall in a panic)
Moral panics created by the media work on behalf of the state to divide and rule the W/C. A/C + W/C = folk devils.
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Phil Cohen
Mods and rockers - symbolic reaction to the decline in W/C jobs.
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Becker
No such thing as a deviant act because no act is deviant in all situations at all times, definition of deviancy itself is relative. Powerful groups enforce laws that reflect their ideology, which are enforced by agents of social control e.g. police.
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Lea and Young
Islington Crime Survey - W/C and A/C commit crime due to relative deprivation, marginalisation and subcultures.
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Murray
Welfare dependency leads to a lack of moral values (SPF's, lack of male role model) which leads to crime. Then passed on in the following generations through primary socialisation.
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Clarke (C = Calculation of Consequences)
People commit crime because rewards outweigh the costs.
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Hirschi
People generally don't commit crime because of... attachment e.g. to family, commitment e.g. to careers, involvement with the community and belief that crime is morally wrong. With age people gain these controls.
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Ann Oakley
Men are socialised to be aggressive and individualistic therefore commit more crimes. Women tend to be less criminal as tenderness and caring for others is stressed in primary socialisation.
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Smart (think smart parents look after their daughters)
Girls spend time together in their bedrooms not the streets and are more strictly supervised by parents.
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Lees
Girls are controlled by the fear of a bad rep.
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Carlen
Criminal women tend to lack qualifications and a job, some are abused by family members and are dependent on welfare. Crime is the only route to a decent standard of living.
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Winlow (think football hooligans smash windows)
Mass unemployment in 80's lead to crisis of masculinity so men attempt to access status through violence.
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Katz (think cats are dangerous)!
Crime is edgework.
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Phillips and Bowling
Crime is an expression of the hostility ethnic minorities feel from excessive stop and searches, live up to their labels.
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Sewell
A/C boys at risk of crime because they cannot relate to mainstream culture, from SPF's and are influenced by media's emphasis on consumption.
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Beck
New set of insecurities and anxieties because of globalisation e.g. terrorism. Threats to the ecosystem are manufactured by high mass consumption.
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White (think colours, green)
Laws are inadequate in tackling green crime.
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Stan Cohen
State crimes are sometimes not illegal but morally wrong, can be justified and are sometimes covered up. Mods and rockers study - demonisation, SFP and therefore deviancy amplification.
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Felson (think falsehoods)
Media reinforces falsehoods of crime in - age, class, planned crime, police are effective and dramatic crime.
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Dobash and Dobash (think DV)
Anger = sign of violence to come. Shame and guilt follows violence from both parties.
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Wilson (think broken windows)
If antisocial behaviour is tolerated more serious crime will develop because the area adopts an "anything goes" approach. Environmental solutions.
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Matthews
Prisons are warehouses where reasons behind crimes are not addressed and rehabilitation rarely takes place.
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Durkheim (positivist) - suicide study
Egoistic - lack of social intergration, altruistic - over-intergration, anomic - lack of regulation and fatalistic - over-regulation.
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Douglas
Some suicide covered up, cultural differences in the meaning of suicide.
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Parsons
Education bridges the family unit and wider society.
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Wilkinson
Genderquake - current generation more focused on careers than child-rearing, see themselves as equal to males.
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Benston
Women's domestic labour produces and maintains a healthy workforce, which is crucial to capitalism.
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CHRIS BROWN
People engage in voluntary behaviour and do not see themselves as puppets of society.
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Goffman
We are all actors engaged in the drama of everyday life.
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Popper
No such thing as the objective truth, we can only be conclusively wrong so science should look for evidence to support the null hypothesis.
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Kuhn
Science is based on assumptions (paradigms) and is constrained by our ideas on how the world is organised.
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Becker
Sociologists should side with the underdogs of society and sociology should be value laden.
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Gouldner
Value-free sociology is a myth.
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Marx
If workers were aware of their exploitation there would be a collective uproar against the upper class.
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Althusser
Repressive state apparatus e.g. police and ideological state apparatus e.g. media used to make W/C passive and accept their exploitation.
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Harvey
Globalisation leads to new commerce and therefore sources of profit.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Racism in the police due to "canteen culture". Young people fit police stereotypes.

Back

Holdaway

Card 3

Front

Military style police presence in ethnic-minority areas lead to more confrontation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

OCS divert attention from M/C crimes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When black youths are up for the same crime as white youths they are 17% more likely to get a prison sentence.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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