Convergence/Divergence Debate

Max Weber
Theory of bureaucracy and rationalisation. Suggests that no matter which country for technology to be applied efficiently, strict practices are required, e.g formal hierarchy
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Burnham, 1941
Rise of professional managers. Same theory is learned and knowledge will be applied with similar practices. Managers learn the same through same training. E.g Anglo American Business
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Kerr et al, 1960
Logic to industrialism - other countries imitate technologies they will also copy the practices used to manage that technology.
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Transaction Cost Economists
Argue that there is one best organisational form for firms that have similar or identical transaction cost. E.g. assembly lines in manufacturing.
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Rowley and Benson (2000)
They claim the convergence perspective too simplistic to assume that all organisations can produce a competitive advantage to compete with each other by operating in the same way.
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Hofstede (2001)
culture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguished the members of one group from another.
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Adler (1991)
Culture shapes individual behaviours and perceptions of the world
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Ferris et al, 1999
In order to manage personnel effectively, MNCs must be aware of the various cultural based norms and attempt to adapt management practices from one culture to another.
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Tayeb, 1994
Found that differences in the perception of leadership style of British and Japanese employees were consistent with their cultural backgrounds.
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Example = Power Distance
China greater power distance than the UK, e.g. to get married in China need a reference from your boss.
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Example = Collectivism
Collectivist culture is consistent with a strong preference for internal recruitment
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Kamoche (1996)
Cultural differences between countries produce a degree of 'differentiation' in the management of human resources in the international context.
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Girgin, 2005
Convergence approach gives too much emphasis to history and individual perspectives and little account to values which might change over time.
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Adler et al, 1986
Organisations are becoming more similar in terms of structure and technology (macro) whereas people's behaviour within those organisations continues to manifest culturally based dissimilarities
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Card 2

Front

Burnham, 1941

Back

Rise of professional managers. Same theory is learned and knowledge will be applied with similar practices. Managers learn the same through same training. E.g Anglo American Business

Card 3

Front

Kerr et al, 1960

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Transaction Cost Economists

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Rowley and Benson (2000)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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