Cognition & Emotion Y1 T2

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  • Created on: 28-07-16 18:16
What are the three levels we can understand the mind?
Subjective experience, functional and neural
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Name four elements of functional account
1. Representations of information 2. Processes 3. Architecture 4. Control mechanisms
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Name the four components of how adults read
1. Identify letters and represent their sequence 2. Identify words 3. Retrieve syntactic class and word meaning 4. Interpret sentence structure, meaning and intention of writer
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What is a word?
A form of pronunciation or spelling pattern with a function.
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How long does it take us to identify a word?
2 or 3 word a second, around 200ms per word, we know around 100,000 word forms
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Name the two ways we measure word identification
1. Artificial laboratory tasks 2. ''On-line'' measures made during continuous natural performance
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What is the word superiority effect?
Accuracy of letter identification is greater in context
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What is the frequency effect?
Reaction time for lexical decision, categorisation and naming is shorter for more frequent words
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What is the sentence context effect?
Reaction time for lexical decision and naming is shorter when a word is presented in a plausible sentence context.
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Name two on-line measures
Moving window technique, word identification span
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Name two theories of word identification
A serial search model, A parallel-matching word-detector model.
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Outline the serial search model.
We compare each spelling pattern to our mental dictionary --> If found a match we retrieve the meaning, if not continue search --> The search is in order of frequency of the language
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What do Hence, Murray and Forster propose?
That we sort word-forms into bins based on the word, and then search the bin based on frequency. Little explanation.
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Outline the parallel-matching word-detector model.
Three layers connected with neuron like connections: 1. Feature units detect the look of words and then activates units if they match. 2. When feature units activated, letter units activated 3. Words units then activated when all letter units act
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What is 'deep dyslexia'?
When we read a word, but say a word with a similar meaning but not sound.
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What is 'surface dyslexia'?
Can read regular words and non-words but have difficulty with exception words
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What is 'phonological dyslexia'?
Can read high frequency word, and exceptions words but have difficult reading non-words and unfamiliar words
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What is the triangle model?
The idea that we have a single network which can translate regular and exception words as long as they are relatively frequent.
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What is the dual route explanation?
The idea that there are two types of 'dyslexia' explaining how people read differently.
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Define 'working memory'
Where we hold small amounts of information in a highly available active state.
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Name three reasons why we have a difference between a STM and LTM
1. Introspection - Primary and secondary memory 2. Physiology - Information already stored in current neural activity vs changes in synapse strength 3. Complex processing systems - Otherwise we would remember all the unuseful things
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What three ways can we measure short term forgetting?
1. The distraction paradigm 2. Probed recall 3. Free recall
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What is the distraction paradigm?
P reads a list, tries to retain whilst counting back in 3s, then is told to recall
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What is probed recall?
P sees/hears a long sequence of items one of which is a probe, they must recall items which followed the probe
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What is free recall?
They have a sequence to remember and have to recall as many as they can
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What is the dual-trace theory?
Retrieval after a short time is followed by rapidly decayed memory trace. After a long time, followed by a more permanent memory trace.
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What is the single-trace theory?
Memory trace begins to decay rapidly, and then gradually slows. Only one memory trace.
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What are declarative memories?
The ability to form new memories from experiences, events and facts
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What is episodic memory?
Memory for individual autobiographical experiences
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What is semantic memory?
General and conceptual knowledge abstracted from experience such as properties of objects
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Outline the 'modal' model of memory
Environmental input --> Sensory registers --> Short terms store --> Long term store (through rehearsal, coding and retrieval strategies)
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How many objects can the visual spatial memory hold?
Around 3-4 (Luck and Vogel 1997)
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Name the four types of recall tests?
Recall of events, free recall of lists, cued recall, serial recall
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Name three things that cause forgetting
1. Inevitable decay process (loss from storage) 2. Retrieval failure 3. Interference
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What is a flashbulb memory?
This is where we have intense memories of emotional events --> Linked to PTSD
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Name three factors that influence retrieval?
1. Encoding 2. Consolidation 3. Storage
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What is rote rehearsal?
A factor at the encoding stage, where you repeat the material you are trying to learn
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Name the second factor in the encoding stage
Processing the meaning of and actively organising the material
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Name a third factor in the encoding stage
Depth of processing
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How mnemonics relevant at the encoding stage?
The imagery encourages a rich nexus of association between the frame and the concept.
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Name a factor that effects the consolidation stage
After brain injury there can be retrograde memory loss which can disrupt the consolidation process
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Name three factors at the retrieval stage
1. False memories 2. Context effects (easier retrieval if tested in same context as required) 3. Remembering as a process of reconstruction
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Why do we categorise?
It enables us to generalise on the right basis and separate things clearly
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What do conceptual hierarchies provide?
Economy of representation- It allows us to store information effectively and not unnecessairly
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Outline the classical view in regards to how concepts are represented in the mind.
Aristotle - We conceptualise by listing necessary features of a categories members.
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Name two issues with the classic view
1. Can be difficult to come up with common sense defining features 2. Not all members of a category are equal, fuzziness of category boundaries
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Outline the modern feature-list view in regards to how concepts are represented in the mind.
Features are weighted, and category membership is determined by which categories feature produces the highest weight. No features necessary, just have enough characteristic features.
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Name an issue with the modern feature-list view
Surely some properties must be essential?
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Outline the prototype theory
Concepts are represented in the mind by an 'average' member of the category. This accommodates fuzziness of boundaries.
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Name an issue with the prototype theory
Some features are discrete and not continuous
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Outline the exemplar (or instance) theory
We retain individual memory records and label them. We assign the stimulus to the category whose instances have the greatest summed similarity to the stimulus.
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What is the end product of text/discourse comprehension?
A mental model constructed in memory as we read: who is doing what and to whom or what, where, how and why
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Is the mental model represented in language?
No- but in a propositional 'language of thought'
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How do we understand connected discourse?
We must link given and new propositions within and across sentences
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What do sentences give that we must extract and link?
Propositions
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What evidence supports the idea that we might have a 'specialised structure-computing module' in our brains?
Broca Aphasia Patients: Some struggle to comprehend simple reversible sentences, syntactically complex sentences and sentences whose meaning depends on function words
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List four levels of ambiguity in language
1. Words with several definitions 2. Ambiguous sentence structures 3. Ambiguity of reference 4. Speech act ambiguity (ok - permission or acknowledgment)
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Name four other factors we can interpret a writer/speakers intention from
1. Extra-linguistic context (status, immediate environment) 2. Body language 3. What has been said before 4. General knowledge (eg. scripts)
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What is semantic priming?
If you are shown a semantically similar word before another word, you are faster to react to say it's a word than if not.
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What is syntactic garden path effect?
Where we construct the most common or simple structure and meaning from a sentence and must recompute if it's the wrong one.
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What is deductive reasoning?
Solving logical or mathematical problems that have right answers
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What is inductive reasoning?
Predicting the future from past data
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What is the 'availability heuristic'?
We judge things to be more probable if we readily have examples of it in memory or environment
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What is availability bias?
Where we over-estimate the probability of events of which we have easily retrievable examples.
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Outline system 1 of the general dual-process theory of reasoning
Automatic, largely unconscious, approximate but domain-specific, fast and frugal. May lead to error as only approximate.
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Outline system 2 of the general dual-process theory of reasoning
Slow, effort-full, logical, conscious reasoning system. Limited by working memory capacity.
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What is conformation bias?
When we tend to test sequences that fit our hypothesis instead of seeking disconfirmatory evidence as well as confirmatory.
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Name the six demands of multi-tasking
1. Competition for cognitive resources 2. Task-switching costs 3. Retrospective memory 4. Prospective memory 5. Planning 6. Problem solving
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Why are drivers ok talking to passengers but not on the phone?
Passengers are sensitive to the drivers load/situation and can point out hazards.
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Name four components of a multi-tasking study
1. Decide on two tasks 2. Get P's to do each task individually 3. Get P's to do both together 4. Measure performance and compare
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What is competition for domain specific resources?
This is where two continuous speech inputs cannot simultaneously be understood or repeated. Two tasks can sometimes uses the same processes or mechanisms.
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What is competition for use of general-purpose processing capacity?
This is the idea that we have a general processor in the brain, and if exceed its capacity there is interference
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What Outline Broadbents (1958) filter model
Sensory features of all sources are analysed and stored briefly in sensory memory. A selective filter is directed only to one source at a time.
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Outline selection in vision
White team vs Black team - when focusing on white team, 50% of people didn't notice the gorilla.
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Name three functions of selective attention
1. Prioritisation 2. Defence - protects limited-capacity systems from overload 3. Feature integration
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What are executive control mechanisms?
The brain has many specialised modules, and there must be control mechanisms that activate these modules and organise them.
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Name some functions attributed to executive control.
1. Inhibiting inappropriate actions 2. Monitoring performance 3. Managing retrieval from long term memory
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Name three ways we can investigate control.
1. Natural history 2. Behavioural experiments 3. Measuring brain activity
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Name two problems with conciousness
1. Explaining phenonemal awareness 2. Differences in conciousness with animals
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How do we test self conciousness in animals?
'The mirror test' - If they rub off the red dot, they have self-conciousness
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Name two neuropsychological disorders of self conciousness
1. Anosognosia (not ackonwledging they have a disorder) 2. Ailen hand syndrome (losing awareness of part of the body)
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Define materialism relating to conciousness
The belief that conciousness is dependent on a physical subtrate such as our brain. Therefore can't be concious when dead.
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Define functionalism relating to conciousness
The belief that conciousness requires certain types of organisation and complexity. Can be concious after death.
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Define what an emotion is.
'A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood or relationship with others. Instictive feelings distinguished from knowledge and reasoning'
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Name the four stages of emotional processing
1. Stimulus in the enviornment 2. Brain appraises stimulus 3.Affective state 4.Regulation of the affective state
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What did Darwin conclude about emotion?
Emotional expression is across species and cultures; it is adaptive for survival. Basic emotions exists across cultures. Emotions may be innate; facial expression in the womb
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What did Fridlund 1991 find about facial expressions and social context.
P's viewed a pleasant video in 1 of 4 conditions. Alone, believing a friend was nearby, believing a friend was watching the same video, watching the video with friend. Smiles measured. Smiling increased-more social, not related to self report emotion
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Outline the James Lange theory
Emotions are sets of bodily responses that occur in response to emotive stimuli. Different patterns of bodily change code different emotions.
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Outline the cannon-bard theory
Emotions occur even if brain is disconnected from viscera. Bodily changes are too slow, and not emotion specific.
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Outline the two factor theory of emotion
All p's believed they had adrenaline shots, and reacted like they had, even placebo. Emotions interpretted based on contextual cues.
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Outline the cicumplex model
Emotions are related to Arousal (intense, neutral, dull) and Valence (negative neutral postive), creating a variety of depedning emotions. EG. Positive Valence Dull Arousal - Peacefullness
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Which part of the brain deals with basic emotional experiences?
The limbic system
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What is the effect of lesions in the amygdala of monkeys?
Changes in social behaviour, absence of social disinhibition
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What is the effect of lesions in the amydala of humans?
Impaired perceptions of expressions and fear, reduced fear conditioning.
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Outline what Joseph LeDoux believes about the high road in the amygdala
High road and low road. High road - takes longer to process and can inhibit or encourage behaviour.
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Outline what LeDoux believes about the low road in the amygdala.
It reacts very quickly to stimuli but doesn't always get it right
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What has been found about the relationship between depression and facial expressions
People with depression are less sensitive to mildly happy faces but more sensitive to sad faces. Increased amygdala responses.
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What is an emotional stroop test?
Read the colour the word is written in, and ignore the content. Compare the rt with neutral content.
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What is a dot probe task?
Words flash up and you have to react to position of the dot. If you react faster when a negative word flashes up then you have attentional bias.
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What is mood congruent memory?
We are more likely to encode and retrieve things congruent with your mood.
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What is cognitive bias modification?
Usually a treatment for people with anxiety and depression, cognitive bias tasks can be used to normalise abnormal cognitive bias.
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What is attentional bias?
Where you attend to a particular type of stimulus over others.
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Card 2

Front

Name four elements of functional account

Back

1. Representations of information 2. Processes 3. Architecture 4. Control mechanisms

Card 3

Front

Name the four components of how adults read

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a word?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How long does it take us to identify a word?

Back

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