Cognition & Emotion

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  • Created on: 24-04-15 14:54
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  • What is emotion?    (1) Emotions as physiological reactions & feedback from peripheral nervous system        (2) Emotions as facial expressions & it's feedback (3) Emotions as a collection of cognitive evaluation & labellng processes
    • Cognition & Emotion
      • Component Process Appraoch - Scherer (2000)
        • •Subjective feelings    •Cognitive appraisals & styles   •Expressive motor behavior   •Physiological arousal   •The readiness to take a particular action
        • Evaluation:  (+)Provides a tool to characterise the richness of subjective & behavioral aspects of emotion       (-)Not clear whether the components act as a concerted whole           (-)Social norms or ‘display rules’ can decouple components (-)Expressive face or the sense of a stronger feeling of an emotion does not necessarily lead to stronger physiological reaction 
      • Zajonc & Lazarus debate: (1) Are there independent systems for cognition & emotion? (2) Can emotion be activated without prior activation of cognitive processes?
        • Zajonc's arguements:  •We make affective judgements about people & objects before knowing precisely what it is     •Emotion info processing is functionally & neuroanatomically independent of conscious processing
          • Evaluation: (+) Emotion can occur independent of conscious cognitive processes    (-)Zajonc confused conscious processing with cognitive processing   (-)Assumes any automatic processes were effective processes    (-)Can not separate cognition & emotion
        • Lazarus arguements:  •Cognitive appraisal a key component for emotional experience
          • Appraisal Theory (1982) (1)Primary appraisal (assessed situational environment, +/-)             (2) Secondary appraisal (the response the individual has to cope with the situation) (3) Re appraisal (both stimulus situation & coping strategies are monitored)     *Can be automatic or conscious & deliberate*
      • Smith & Lazarus arguements (1993)
        • (1) Each emotion elicited by a specific & district pattern of appraisal:    (1) motivational relevance        (2) motivational congruence     (3) Accountability (4) Problem focused coping potential           (5) Emotion focused coping potential           (6) Future expectancy      1-2 primary, 4-5 secondary
          • Evaluation of Appraisal Theory: Do appraisals always determine emotional experience? (-)Difficult to study rapid & automatic associative processing involved in appraisal
        • (2)  Focus on STRUCTURE of appraisal rather than PROCESS
      • Emotions in laboratory::   •Induced emotions should be those occuring in everyday life   •Should not surpass that typically experienced in daily life   •Must be extinguishable                •Can be diffucult to provke some emotions experimentally
      • Recalling emotional experiences - Bowers (1981) Associative Network Model:    •Specific emotions are represented in memory as central units of into that are linked to other units which represent other idea that associated with emotion


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