Coastal Topic

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Longshore Drift
the movement of material along a coast by waves which approach at an angle to the shore but recede directly away from it.
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Mass Movement
Different mass movements occur on slopes under different conditions. We'll look at four types; rockfall, mudflow, landslip and soil creep. Soil creep is the slow downward progression of rock and soil down a low grade slope
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Land forms of erosion
Along a coastline there are features created by erosion. These include cliffs, wave-cut platforms and wave-cut notches. There are also headlands and bays, caves, arches, stacks and stumps.
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Land forms of deposition
Along a coastline you find features created by deposition. These include beaches, spits and tombolos.
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Erosion
Hydraulic action - the force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away. Abrasion - rocks carried along by the river wear down the river bed and banks.
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Erosion
Attrition - rocks being carried by the river smash together and break into smaller, smoother and rounder particles. Solution - soluble particles are dissolved into the river.
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Transport
Solution - minerals are dissolved in the water and carried along in solution. Suspension - fine light material is carried along in the water. Saltation - small pebbles&stones are bounced along river bed. Traction - large boulders rolled
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Sea Level rise
shrinking land ice, such as mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets, is releasing water into the oceans. Second, as ocean temperatures rise, the warmer water expands.
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Cliff collapse
Cliffs are shaped through erosion and weathering - Soft rock, eg sand&clay, erodes easily to create gently sloping cliffs. Hard rock, eg chalk, is more resistant and erodes slowly creates steep cliffs. Hard rock, chalk, is more resistant&erodes slow
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Coastal defence
Physical management of the coast attempts to control natural processes such as erosion and longshore drift. Rock armour, groynes, sea wall are all hard engineering. Soft engineering options are often less expensive than hard engineering options.
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Managed Retreat
Managed retreat allows an area that was not previously exposed to flooding by the sea to become flooded by removing coastal protection.
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Salt marshes
are flooded and drained by salt water brought in by the tides. They are marshy because the soil may be composed of deep mud and peat. Peat is made of decomposing plant matter that is often several feet thick. Peat is waterlogged, root-filled&spondgy
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Sand dunes
Sand dunes are small ridges or hills of sand found at the top of a beach, above the usual maximum reach of the waves. They form from wind blown sand that is initially deposited against an obstruction such as a bush, driftwood or rock.
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Sand dunes
As more sand particles are deposited the dunes grow in size, forming rows at right angles to the prevailing wind direction. If vegetation, such as Marram Grass and Sand Couch, begins to grow on the dune its roots will help to bind the sand together
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Different mass movements occur on slopes under different conditions. We'll look at four types; rockfall, mudflow, landslip and soil creep. Soil creep is the slow downward progression of rock and soil down a low grade slope

Back

Mass Movement

Card 3

Front

Along a coastline there are features created by erosion. These include cliffs, wave-cut platforms and wave-cut notches. There are also headlands and bays, caves, arches, stacks and stumps.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Along a coastline you find features created by deposition. These include beaches, spits and tombolos.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Hydraulic action - the force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away. Abrasion - rocks carried along by the river wear down the river bed and banks.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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